Skip to main content

Full text of "Reminiscences and letters of George Arrowsmith of New Jersey"

See other formats


THE  LIBRARY 

OF 

THE  UNIVERSITY 
OF  CALIFORNIA 

LOS  ANGELES 


J%^ 


'-$" 

'^i^^<_^^; 


REMINISCENCES  AND  LETTERS 


OF 


GEORGE  ARROWSMITH 


OF  NEW  JERSEY 


LATE  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  OF  THE  ONE  HUNDRED 

AND  FIFTY-SEVENTH  REGIMENT,  NEW  YORK 

STATE  VOLUNTEERS 


BY 

JOHN  S.  APPLEGATE 


RED  BANK,  N.  J. 
JOHN  H.  COOK,  PUBLISHER 

1893 


I'RKSS  OK  THE  REGISTER, 
RKD  HANK,   X.  J. 


TO 

• 

ARROWSMITH    POST, 

NO.  6l,  DEPARTMENT    OF    NEW    JERSEY',  GRAND 

ARMY  OF  THE  REPUBLIC,  THIS  BOOK  IS 

RESPECTFULLY  DEDICATED. 


work  grew  insensibly  on  my  hands,  beyond  the 
limits  of  an  ordinary  discourse,  and  in  a  form 
materially  abridged  I  presented  it  to  the  Post 
at  a  public  meeting  held  under  its  auspices  on 
the  evening  of  Decoration  Day,  1891.  Now,  at 
the  request  of  a  number  of  those  who  were  en- 
deared to  the  soldier  for  his  many  excellent 
qualities,  and  of  others,  who,  though  personally 
unacquainted  with  him,  are  interested  in  his 
history  as  members  of  the  organization  that 
bears  his  name,  I  have  undertaken  to  publish 
the  matter  I  have  collected,  intending  it  as  a 
simple  memorial  of  a  brave  and  loyal  man. 

J.  S.  A. 

Red  Bank,  N.  /.,  December  ?th,  1893. 


CONTENTS. 


PORTRAIT  OF  GEORGE  ARROWSMITH        Frontispiece 

INTRQDUCTORV      .  i 

ANCESTORS  3 
EARLY  LIFE                                             .         .         7 

COLLEGE  DAYS                    .  .11 
LAW  STUDENT  AND  TUTOR           ...       22 

His  PATRIOTISM  KINDLED  28 

ENROLLMENT  AS  A  SOLDIER  .       32 

EN  ROUTE  FOR  WASHINGTON  43 

BATTLE  OF  BULL  RUN  .       52 

CAMP  AND  PICKET     .  61 

THE  TENTED  FIELD       .  .       66 

DESTRUCTION  OF  A  BRIDGE       .  79 

A  DESCRIPTION  OF  ALEXANDRIA  .       87 

BEAUTIFUL  CAMP  MARY  92 

A  VISIT  TO  MOUNT  VERNON  .       97 

SKIRMISH  AT  POHICH  CHURCH  102 

A  WAR  CAMP  IN  AUTUMN     .  .     104 

THE  CHAPLAIN  ARRIVES  114 


1'AGE. 

A  SOLDIER'S  THANKSGIVING  .     116 

FORT  LYON        ...  123 

ALONG  THE  RAPPAHANNOCK          .  127 

TALKS  WITH  PRISONERS                     .  137 

ASSISTANT  ADJUTANT-GENERAL  .         .  143 

A  SUMMER  RESORT  ENCAMPMENT     .         .  146 

NEW  DUTIES          .         .                  ...  152 

CEDAR  MOUNTAIN      .  154 

SECOND  BULL  RUN        .         .  .     156 

TRIBUTE  FROM  GENERAL  TOWER       .  161 

LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  .     164 

A  PLEASING  RECEPTION     .                 .  173 

WASHINGTON  IN  1862                      .  177 

A  REMINISCENT  LETTER                      .  182 

PERSONAL  INCIDENTS    .  .186 

VISIT  TO  THE  TWENTY-NINTH       .  .     189 

CHANCELI.ORSVILLE  193 

HONOR  FOR  THE  157'I'H  .     198 

THE  INVASION  OF  THE  NORTH                     .  206 

THE  BATTLE  OF  GETTYSBURG       .  .     210 

DEATH  OF  ARROWSMITH    .                  .         .  ,214 

FUNERAL  OBSEQUIES     .....  227 

TRIBUTE  FROM  COLONEL  PLACE         .         .  229 

CONCLUSION 232 

APPENDIX 237 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH, 


INTRODUCTORY. 


'T^HERE  are  many  heroes  in  American  history 
who  have  won  national  fame.  There  are 
many  others  whose  reputations  are  more  cir- 
cumscribed, but  who  were  just  as  brave,  just  as 
patriotic,  just  as  self-sacrificing.  The  last  may 
be  counted  by  the  hundreds  of  thousands  who, 
at  the  call  of  the  President  for  volunteers,  went 
forth  from  the  counting-house,  the  farm,  the 
workshop  to  engage  in  deadly  strife  with  the 
enemies  of  our  country.  Many  were  young 
men  of  rare  promise,  talented,  cultured  and 
brave,  and  who  might  have  attained  high  na- 
tional distinction  in  civil  or  military  life,  but 


2  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

were  cut  down  in  battle  at  the  very  threshold  of 
their  career.  As  observed  by  President  Lincoln 
in  a  compliment  to  the  character  and  intelligence 
of  regiments  arriving  in  Washington  at  the  be- 
ginning of  the  civil  war,  they  contained  individ- 
uals quite  competent  to  discharge  the  functions 
of  the  highest  executive  office  of  the  nation. 

I  propose  to  speak  of  one  of  these  gallant 
heroes,  a  youth  of  brilliant  promise,  cut  down  in 
the  morning  of  life  ;  a  soldier  of  this  republic, 
who  entered  the  field  to  die,  if  need  be,  for  the 
honor  of  its  flag,  with  no  expectation  of  a  return 
to  peaceful  pursuits  until  the  object  of  the  war 
had  been  accomplished. 


ANCESTORS. 


fcORGE  ARROWSMITH  was  born  on  the 
eighteenth  day  of  April,  1839,  in  the  part 
of  Middletown  township  (now  Holmdel)  near 
Harmony  meeting-house.  He  was  a  descendant 
of  a  family  of  Arrowsmiths,  settled  on  Staten 
Island  about  the  year  1683,  who  were  English- 
men, occupying  a  prominent  position  in  society, 
and  had  rendered  public  service,  both  of  a  mili- 
tary and  judicial  character.  His  father  was 
Thomas  Arrowsmith,  a  farmer  by  occupation, 
who  owned  a  farm  on  which  he  resided,  and  a 
mill,  at  what  was  then  known  as  Arrowsmith's 
Mills.  He  was  a  man  of  limited  educational  ad- 
vantages, but  naturally  gifted  with  superior 
mental  endowments.  His  manner  was  mild  and 
his  disposition  social.  He  had  stored  his  mind 
with  the  information  of  general  reading,  and 


4  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

thus  with  the  advantage  of  a  retentive  memory, 
was  an  instructive  and  entertaining  conversation- 
alist, as  well  as  a  pleasing  public  speaker.  His 
simplicity  of  character  was  such  that  even  be- 
yond middle  life  he  found  pleasure  in  the  com- 
pany of  boys  in  their  teens,  and  there  are  those 
living  who,  when  boys,  have  spent  a  pleasant 
hour  in  his  society  and  profited  by  his  counsel. 
He  was  quite  an  effective  public  speaker.  In 
my  early  law  practice  I  crossed  swords  with  him 
on  one  occasion  before  a  road  tribunal,  when  he 
spoke  in  his  own  behalf,  and  I  found  him  by 
reason  of  the  high  respect  he  commanded  as  a 
citizen,  supplemented  by  his  persuasive  diction 
and  adroit  manner  of  presenting  his  case,  a 
dangerous  adversary  In  the  village  debating 
society — and  the  village  debating  society  was 
no  small  factor  in  our  civilization  fifty  years  ago 
— his  varied  information  usually  enabled  him  to 
bear  the  palm.  He  enjoyed  in  a  high  degree 
the  confidence  of  his  fellow  citizens.  He  was  a 
veteran  of  the  war  of  1812  and  a  major  in  the 
State  militia.  For  a  number  of  years  he  served 
the  Township  of  Middletown  as  its  assessor  of 
taxes.  In  1835  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the 
legislative  counsel  of  New  Jersey,  a  position  cor- 
responding with  that  of  State  Senator  under  the 
constitution  of  1844.  In  this  capacity  he  served 
two  years,  being  succeeded  by  the  late  Hon. 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  5 

William  L.  Dayton.  In  1843  ne  was  elected  to 
the  responsible  position  of  Treasurer  of  the 
State  of  New  Jersey,  holding  the  office  until 
1845.  From  1848  until  1850  he  was  a  member 
of  the  board  of  Chosen  Freeholders  for  the 
township  of  Raritan,  being  the  first  to  represent 
that  township  on  the  Board.  From  February, 
1852,  until  February,  1858,  he  was- one  of  the  lay 
judges  of  the  Court  of  Errors  and  Appeals  of 
New  Jersey.  In  all  these  official  positions  he 
discharged  his  duties  creditably  and  acceptably 
to  the  public,  and  his  integrity  was  never  as- 
sailed. He  died  December  27th,  1866,  at  the 
age  of  seventy-two  years.  The  loss  of  his  son 
was  a  crushing  grief,  and  like  Jacob  when  he 
refused  to  be  comforted  and  said  "I  will  go 
down  unto  the  grave  unto  my  son  mourning," 
his  death  followed  swiftly.  The  mother  of 
George  was  Emma  VanBrackle,  a  lady  of  quiet 
manner,  but  whose  countenance  seemed  radiant 
with  maternal  tenderness  and  affection,  and 
whose  life  was  "  full  of  good  works  and  alms 
deeds  which  she  did."  She  was  a  daughter  of 
Hon.  Matthias  VanBrackle  of  Monmouth  county, 
a  substantial  farmer  who  in  1820  represented  his 
district  in  the  State  legislature.  She  survived 
the  death  of  her  husband  a  few  years. 

There  were  born  to  Thomas  and  Emma  Ar- 
rowsmith  nine  children.     Joseph  Edgar  Arrow- 


6         LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

smith,  long  well  known  as  a  leading  physician 
of  the  county,  resident  at  Keyport  ;  John  V.  Ar- 
rowsmith,  a  highly  respected  citizen,  also  resi- 
dent at  Keyport ;  Eleanor,  the  esteemed  wife  of 
Daniel  Roberts  ;  Cordelia,  a  lovely  young  lady, 
who  died  at  the  early  age  of  twenty  years ; 
Thomas  Arrowsmith,  who  in  the  beginning  of 
the  civil  war  enlisted  in  the  Eighth  Pennsylvania 
cavalry,  and  was  subsequently  promoted  to  the 
position  of  Brigade  Quartermaster  with  the  rank 
of  Major,  serving  until  the  end  of  the  war,  and 
who  afterwards  engaged  in  teaching;  Stephen, 
who  died  in  infancy;  Emma,  a  much  beloved 
sister,  who  is  lately  deceased;  George,  the  sub- 
ject of  this  sketch;  and  Stephen  V.  Arrowsmith, 
the  present  principal  of  the  Keyport  graded 
school,  where  he  has  successfully  served  the  pub- 
lic for  fifteen  years. 


EARLY   LIFE. 


A  T  the  old  Harmony  school  house  in  the 
vicinity  of  his  home  George  obtained  his 
preliminary  educational  training.  Here  he  was 
intimately  associated  as  a  fellow  pupil  with 
Major  Charles  B.  Parsons,  who  was  destined  to 
become  a  fellow  soldier  in  the  army  of  the 
Union,  and  a  commander  of  the  Grand  Army 
Post  bearing  his  playmate's  name.  I  first  met 
George  as  a  schoolmate  at  the  Middletown 
Academy  about  the  year  1851.  Among  others 
in  our  class  were  Thomas  Field,  now  deceased, 
a  young  man  of  much  promise ;  the  Rev. 
Thomas  Hanlon,  D.  D.,  President  of  Pennington 
Seminary;  the  Hon.  George  C.  Beekman,  late 
presiding  judge  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas 
and  State  Senator;  and  Jacob  T.  Stout,  the  en- 
terprising contractor  of  Atlantic  Highlands.  At 


8  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

this  early  age  George  manifested  a  military  taste. 
Even  at  a  much  younger  period,  as  his  mother 
used  to  say,  "he  was  completely  carried  away 
with  anything  that  pertained  to  soldiers."  A 
pack  of  schoolboys  trooping  as  wild  horses 
would  suggest  to  his  mind  a  charging  squadron 
of  cavalry;  and  later,  upon  the  college  hill,  on  a 
quiet  Sabbath  morn,  listening  to  peals  of  the 
church  bells  in  the  valley  below,  he  would  recall 
Napoleon's  fondness  for  such  an  incident.  Head- 
ley's  "Washington  and  his  Generals"  and  "Na- 
poleon and  his  Marshals,"  were  favorite  books. 
His  admiration  for  the  fighting  qualities  and 
dash  of  Marshals  Ney  and  Murat  and  Benedict 
Arnold  was  unbounded,  though  bitter  in  his  de- 
nunciation of  Arnold's  treason.  His  first  com- 
position at  the  Middletown  Academy  was  upon 
the  subject  of  George  Washington.  It  made  a 
lasting  impression  on  my  mind  as  a  bright  pro- 
duction by  so  young  an  author.  Throughout 
his  academic  course  all  his  orations  and  essays, 
so  far  as  I  can  remember,  were  upon  historical 
subjects  or  characters.  In  school  he  was  bright 
and  tractable.  Out  of  school  he  was  a  leader  in 
sport  and  never  offensive  to  his  play  fellows. 
Once  I  saw  him  angry.  An  older  boy  stood  be- 
fore him,  vexing  him  with  gibes  and  raillery.  He 
stood  like  a  statue,  silent  and  sullen,  but  occa- 
sionally expressing  defiance  by  throwing  a  key 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.         9 

which  hung  suspended  by  a  string  around  his 
neck  towards  his  tormentor's  face.  It  was  not 
difficult  for  his  assailant  to  interpret  the  action, 
and  he  wisely  suspended  his  offensive  conduct. 

"The  charm  of  his  character,"  said  Dr.  Lock- 
wood  in  an  obituary  address,  "was  his  filial 
obedience.  It  was  a  volume  of  eulogy  con- 
densed into  one  heart  utterance,  when  the  aged 
father  said  to  me  in  words  almost  choked  by 
the  sense  of  his  bereavement,  'George  was  a 
good  boy;  I  never  once  had  occasion  to  chas- 
tise him.' " 

After  a  short  attendance  at  school  at  Middle- 
town  Point,  he  entered  the  grammar  school  con- 
nected with  Madison  University  at  Hamilton, 
New  York,  in  May,  1854.  I  was  already  a  stu- 
dent there,  and  being  old  schoolmates,  we  took 
a  room  together  in  No.  31,  first  floor,  Western 
Edifice,  at  the  southwesterly  entrance.  It  was 
by  far  the  noisiest  room  on  the  Hill,  and  we 
made  it  noisier  by  unmelodious  practising  upon 
violins,  evoking  emphatic  protests  from  our 
neighbors,  who  I  fear  have  never  entirely  for- 
given us  for  the  many  joyless  hours  we  caused 
them. 

In  housekeeping  we  suffered  no  adversity 
worse  than  a  holiday  spent  in  exasperating  ef- 
forts to  put  up  and  connect  a  line  of  disjointed 
stove  pipe.  I  might  add  for  the  benefit  of  the 


10  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

curious  reader  that  there  were  no  expressions 
of  a  profane  nature  accompanying  the  work, 
though  what  we  said  internally — well,  that  is 
not  legal  evidence. 

On  another  occasion  our  domestic  bliss  was 
marred  by  bitterness  and  disappointment.  We 
bought  some  pretty  paper  to  decorate  the  walls 
of  our  room.  To  save  expense  we  put  it  on 
ourselves.  It  was  not  artistically  done,  but  it 
was  better  than  bare  walls.  As  the  paper  be- 
came thoroughly  dried,  we  observed  that  when- 
ever a  fire  was  started  and  the  room  warmed 
up  a  crackling  sound  would  be  heard  around  the 
borders.  Investigation  showed  it  was  the  paper 
gradually  loosening  day  by  day,  greatly  disturb- 
ing the  equanimity  of  our  tempers,  until  finally 
it  was  indeed  a  sorry  spectacle,  hanging  upon 
the  wall  in  rolls  and  festoons.  But  there  was 
a  lesson  derived  from  the  experience,  which  is 
never  to  paper  a  whitewashed  wall. 


COLLEGE  DAYS. 

TN  October,  1855,  George  entered  the  Fresh- 
man class  of  Madison  University  at  the  age 
of  sixteen.  He  was  allotted  to  the  Ionian 
Society,  one  of  the  two  literary  societies  then 
existing  in  the  college.  Though  the  youngest 
student,  he  took  and  maintained  a  high  rank 
both  in  class  and  in  literary  work.  He  could 
acquire  with  little  effort  and  was  a  sprightly 
and  ready  writer.  Socially  he  was  highly  es- 
teemed, and  was  a  general  favorite  with  students 
and  townspeople.  While  his  face  was  not  of 
the  handsome  type,  yet  he  passed  as  a  hand- 
some man.  Height,  five  feet,  eleven  inches,  hair 
black  and  long,  complexion  dark,  dark  hazel 
eyes,  a  face  serious  in  repose,  form  erect  and 
spare,  weight  one  hundred  and  forty  pounds, 
and  a  manly  bearing,  all  combined  to  produce 


12  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

a  military  figure  that  would  be  noticed  in  a 
crowd. 

He  was  popular  with  the  ladies  and  fond  of 
ladies'  society,  though  I  never  knew  of  his  being 
especially  devoted  to  any  one,  beyond  what  was 
consistent  with  a  mere  friendly  partiality.  I 
recall  a  query  propounded  by  a  young  lady 
student  at  the  Hamilton  Female  Seminary  in  the 
reading  of  her  paper  at  a  public  meeting  of  its 
literary  society,  "  Does  Arrowsmith  manufacture 
Cupid's  arrows  ?" 

He  was  possessed  of  superior  musical  gifts. 
Throughout  his  academic  course  he  sang  in  the 
college  choir  and  glee  club.  Having  a  deep 
and  melodious  bass  voice,  it  was  rarely  indeed 
that  he  was  not  one  of  a  musical  party  that 
afforded  pleasant  entertainment  in  a  serenade 
or  at  an  evening  concert.  He  also  excelled  in 
instrumental  music  as  an  amateur  performer 
upon  the  piano,  organ,  bass  viol  and  violin.  In 
college  sports  he  was  never  a  laggard,  though 
not  an  athlete.  In  his  day,  athletics  were  not  a 
college  specialty  as  now,  and  in  the  absence  of 
practice  there  was  little  opportunity  for  devel- 
opment in  that  line.  He  was  fond  of  swimming, 
skating  and  coasting.  I  recall  an  incident  when 
on  a  Thanksgiving  Day  a  party  of  which  he  was 
one  skated  down  the  Chenango  canal  to  Earl- 
ville  and  back,  a  distance  of  twelve  miles.  The 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  13 

last  one  to  arrive  at  Earlville  was  to  pay  for  the 
oysters  for  the  party.  The  last  was  a  Virginian, 
who  enlisted  in  "the  war  on  the  Confederate  side, 
and  was  killed  in  battle  at  the  explosion  of  the 
mine  before  Petersburg. 

A  coasting  incident  I  have  not  forgotten. 
Mounting  the  same  sled,  we  started  for  break- 
fast to  the  boarding  hall,  quarter  of  a  mile 
away.  With  polished  runners,  a  steep  descent 
and  Smooth  ice,  we  shot  down  the  ravine  like 
an  arrow.  It  was  impossible  to  round  that 
curve  without  upsetting,  so  we  headed  straight 
down  a  sloping  field.  Half  way  across,  with  un- 
slackened  speed,  we  struck  a  ditch  concealed 
under  the  snow.  There  followed  an  exhibition 
of  stars,  infinite  in  variety,  succeeded  by  a  tab- 
leau, suggestive  of  the  "  wreck  of  matter  and 
the  crush  of  worlds." 

In  college  pranks  George  was  a  good  fol- 
lower, but  never  a  leader.  And  even  as  a  fol- 
lower he  recognized  the  limits  of  self-respect. 
If  a  proposed  scheme  involved  an  element  of 
dishonor,  his  ready  answer  was  "  No,  that  will 
be  mean  ;"  but  an  innocent  affair  like  "ringing 
the  rust"  or  a  "mock  scheme"  for  a  Junior 
Exhibition  or  a  Young  American  Celebration  of 
the  Fourth  of  July,  he  entered  into  with  ardor. 

An  incident  will  illustrate  the  harmless  char- 
acter of  his  college  jokes.  When  the  first  sub- 


14  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROW8MITH. 

marine  Atlantic  cable  was  laid  and  messages  of 
congratulation  had  passed  between  the  Presi- 
dent and  the  Queen,  there  was  a  sudden  inter- 
ruption of  communication.  While  the  people 
were  eagerly  waiting  for  the  next  message, 
which  owing  to  an  accident  was  delayed,  George 
overnight  printed  some  placards  (he  had  learned 
to  set  type  in  the  village  printing  office)  and 
posted  them  around  town,  greeting  the  public 
eye  the  next  morning  with  the  following  an- 
nouncement: "  Latest  by  submarine  cable  !  The 
Duke  of  Cambridge's  cows  broke  into  the 
Queen's  garden  last  night  and  destroyed  her 
cabbages."  For  about  two  hours  those  in  the 
secret  enjoyed  the  spectacle  of  people  gathered 
in  knots  about  the  streets,  discussing  the  latest 
intelligence  from  Europe,  and  the  great  wonders 
the  magnetic  telegraph  had  wrought. 

True  to  his  ancestry,  George  was  a  staunch 
Democrat  in  politics,  and  though  educated  in  a 
rank  Republican  town,  his  political  faith  was  un- 
shaken by  his  environment.  His  political  activi- 
ties began  at  the  age  of  seventeen,  when  he  made 
himself  quite  popular  with  his  party  in  Hamilton 
as  a  stump  speaker  for  Buchanan  and  Brecken- 
ridge.  The  success  of  the  Democracy  in  that 
campaign  was  the  occasion  of  a  Democratic  fes- 
tival in  celebration  of  the  victory,  given  at  the 
Eagle  Hotel  at  Hamilton,  on  which  occasion 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  15 

Arrowsmith  was  called  out  and  made  a  speech 
which  was  received  with  great  favor  an«l  specially 
complimented  in  the  next  issue  of  the  Democratic 
Union.  About  this  time  a  letter  written  to  his 
brother  Stephen  indicates  his  lively  interest  in 
the  political  campaign.  "  Everything  reminds 
me  of  the  old  times  in  Trenton  (he  lived  in  Tren- 
ton, N.  J.,  while  his  father  was  State  Treasurer 
from  1843  to  1845)  when  I  used  to  get  'licked' 
so  by  the  Whig  boys  of  Mr.  Minses's  school. 
There  is  a  Buchanan  club  in  the  village  and  I 
frequently  go  to  their  room  to  read  the  papers  ; 
but  I  wish  you  would  send  me  the  Washington 
Union  every  week.  That  will  be  easier  than  to 
write  a  letter  and  I  will  take  it  as  a  propitious 
omen  that  you  are  all  well.  It  will  be  quite  a 
curiosity  here  where  abolitionism  and  black  re- 
publicanism run  rampant."  In  the  same  year, 
1856,  George  was  an  occasional  writer  for  the 
newspapers  of  his  own  county.  In  the  issue 
of  the  New  Jersey  Standard  of  May  ist,  1856, 
there  appears  an  article  written  by  him  entitled 
"Cromwell  and  Bonaparte,"  and  signed  "  Scrip- 
tor."  It  evidences  the  remarkable  maturity  of 
his  intellect  at  the  period  of  his  seventeenth 
birthday. 

In  the  Ionian  Literary  Society  George  took 
a  high  rank  as  a  writer  and  orator,  and  all  its 
principal  honors  were  bestowed  upon  him.  He 


16  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

filled  successively  the  offices  of  Critic,  Vice  Pres- 
ident and  President.  At  its  public  meeting  in 
his  senior  year  he  delivered  the  valedictory  ora- 
tion. The  following  complimentary  notice  of 
one  of  his  orations  before  a  public  meeting  of 
the  society  appeared  in  the  Hamilton  Republican-. 

"  The  next  oration,  Subject :  '  Excess  of  Polit- 
ical Freedom,'  reflected  high  honor  upon  the 
genius  of  its  composer.  In  the  production  of 
this  speech,  Mr.  Arrowsmith  not  only  honored 
himself  with  the  reputation  of  one  of  the  best 
writers  in  the  University,  but  manifested  ability 
as  an  orator  that  will  confidently  defy  competi- 
tion. The  grace  of  his  style,  the  easy  flow  of 
his  expressive  diction,  the  palmy  fulness  of  his 
periods,  combined  with  the  spicy,  piquant 
quaintness  of  humor  that  so  appropriately  and 
unostensibly  insinuated  itself  in  the  composition, 
lent  a  telling  effect  to  his  effort.  Mr.  Arrow- 
smith  is  destined  to  leave  his  own  mark  on  the 
political  future  of  his  country." 

It  used  to  be  a  custom  in  Hamilton  for  the 
youths  of  the  village  to  celebrate  the  Fourth  of 
July  by  a  ceremony  distinctively  Young  Ameri- 
can. After  a  parade  on  horseback  by  a  hundred 
or  more  young  men  fantastically  dressed  and 
masked,  they  would  draw  up  in  the  park 
around  a  platform  to  listen  to  speeches.  Among 
the  pleasant  reminiscences  of  my  college  life 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  A.RROWSMITH.  17 

was  an  occasion  in  1857  when  George  was  a 
participant  in  a  celebration  of  this  character  and 
one  of  the  orators  of  the  day.  His  personality 
disguised,  his  argument  was  in  keeping  with  his 
appearance,  very  grotesque.  Referring  to  the 
question  of  prohibition,  he  suggested  three 
methods  of  reform.  The  first,  which  he  thought 
would  be  popular  with  the  reformers,  was  for 
they  themselves  to  drink  up  all  the  liquor,  so 
that  none  would  be  left  for  the  anti-reformers. 
The  second  was  to  petition  the  legislature  to 
pass  a  law  forbidding  the  use  of  intoxicating 
beverages  by  every  citizen,  excepting  members 
of  the  legislature.  Such  a  bill,  he  thought 
would  be  popular  with  the  members  of  the 
legislature  and  sure  to  pass.  The  third  was  a 
gradual  reduction  of  the  strength  of  liquors  by 
dilution  with  water  until  it  came  to  be  adminis- 
tered in  such  homoeopathic  doses  that  it  could 
do  no  mischief.  The  last  was  sure  to  be  popular 
with  the  whiskey  venders.  The  question  of 
slavery,  then  the  exciting  topic  of  the  country, 
also  received  his  attention.  "  Are  we  all,"  he 
said,  "  to  be  made  nigger  slaves  to  the  South  ? 
Is  that  old  monster  slavery  to  rear  its  black  and 
grizzly  form  over  the  fair  North  and  vomit  up 
pollution  over  the  verdant  hills  and  people  of 
New  York  ?  No  !  Let  us  rather  say  in  the  lan- 
guage of  the  immortal  Webster  in  reply  to  De- 


18  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

mosthenes — Liberty  and  Death — Henry  Ward 
Beecher  forever — Sharp's  rifles,  inevitable  and 
let  her  burn — I  repeat  it,  sir — let  her  burn. 
Fellow  citizens,  my  feelings  overcome  me  when 
I  touch  upon  such  a  subject.  When  I  see  re- 
publicanism trodden  under  foot  and  scorned — 
the  pathfinder  of  freedom  and  salt  river  defeated 
in  a  National  election,  I  am  prompted  to  seize 
the  American  Eagle  by  the  tail  feathers  and 
twist  him  round  the  head  of  the  Government 
until  by  the  flapping  of  his  wings  there  is  not  a 
quill  left  large  enough  to  make  a  pen  for  a 
pettifogging  lawyer." 

There  is  more,  but  this  will  do  to  show  that 
as  a  boy  of  eighteen,  he  was  not  a  sleepy  one. 

The  Mu  chapter  of  t'he  Delta  Kappa  Epsilon 
Fraternity  of  Madison  University  was  organized 
in  1856.  Arrowsmith  was  one  of  its  founders. 
It  had  existed  hardly  two  years  when  the  faculty 
determined  to  uproot  it,  upon  the  ground  that 
the  existence  of  a  Greek  letter  society  in  the 
college  was  inimical  to  its  prosperity.  About 
one-half  of  its  members  promptly  yielded  to  the 
pressure  of  the  faculty  and  withdrew  from  the 
society.  The  remainder  by  standing  firmer 
succeeded  in  effecting  a  compromise  and  saving 
the  chapter.  Arrowsmith  was  one  of  the  latter. 
His  loyalty  to  the  fraternity  was  intense.  He 
clung  to  its  memory  while  he  lived  and  died  in 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  19 

battle  wearing  its  emblem  near  his  heart.  It 
may  be  of  interest  to  add  that  the  Delta  Kappa 
Epsilon  Fraternity  is  no  longer  proscribed  at 
Madison  (now  Colgate),  but  flourishes  with  the 
favor  of  the  college  authorities.  Tetnpora  mu- 
tant ur,  etc. 

In  his  Junior  year  he  became  a  subject  of  the 
Divine  grace  and  united  with  the  Hamilton 
Baptist  Church.  He  had  always  yielded  a 
reverential  attention  to  religious  matters.  Be- 
fore his  conversion  he  would  welcome  to  his 
room  the  class  prayer  meeting,  and  would  open 
the  exercises  by  reading  a  chapter  from  the 
Bible.  "The  fact  of  his  conversion,"  said  Dr. 
Lockwood  at  his  funeral,  "he  communicated  to 
his  parents  in  a  way  so  joyous  and  artless  as 
showed  that  he  had  become  really  a  child  of  the 
Kingdom  of  God.  As  near  as  I  can  remember 
his  words  addressed  first  to  his  mother  are: 
'  Dear  Mother,  I  am  going  to  bed,  but  first  I 
must  sit  down  to  write  you  some  good  news.  I 
trust  I  have  found  the  Saviour.  O,  what  a 
change  !  Dear  Father,  I  feel  now  that  I  have  a 
great  Friend  above  who  will  help  me  to  carry 
out  your  good  advice  to  me.' "  Fully  three  years 
afterward  in  a  letter  addressed  to  his  brother, 
referring  to  the  conversion  of  the  latter,  "  Be  as- 
sured," he  says,  "  that  the  intelligence  was  very 
gratifying  to  me.  One  thing  is  certain,  you  have 


20        LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

never  done  a  nobler  or  more  important  thing  in 
your  life  than  that  which  you  mention,  transact- 
ing business  for  eternity.  Your  determination 
has  greatly  pleased  me  as  it  will  all  your  true 
friends.  Your  step,  as  you  say,  ought  not  to 
deprive  you  of  any  real  pleasure.  Who  in  the 
world  has  more  reason  to  be  happy  than  he  who 
has  a  friend  in  the  all-powerful  and  ever-present 
Being  who  rules  the  world  ?  The  Christian  is 
the  only  person  in  the  world  who  may  be  said 
really  to  fear  nothing." 

In  the  year  1858,  after  the  destruction  by  in- 
cendiaries of  the  Quarantine  Hospital  on  Staten 
Island,  there  was  a  strong  public  sentiment 
manifested  by  the  New  York  press  in  favor  of 
reestablishing  the  hospital  on  the  Jersey  shore  at 
Sandy  Hook.  This  stirred  up  an  indignant  op- 
position in  New  Jersey,  and  especially  in  Mon- 
mouth  County,  whose  rich  and  fertile  lands  and 
prosperous  summer  resorts  would  be  seriously 
prejudiced  by  the  location  of  a  pest-house  upon 
its  shores.  George's  pen  was  active  in  denuncia- 
tion of  the  scheme,  furnishing  articles  which  ap- 
peared in  the  New  York  Times  and  the  Trenton 
True  American.  These  articles  were  copied  and 
circulated  widely  throughout  the  State  and  were 
regarded  with  much  favor  as  a  clear  and  effective 
presentation  of  the  case  from  New  Jersey's 
standpoint. 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  21 

George  was  graduated  in  the  class  of  1859  at 
the  #ge  of  twenty  years.  The  Republican  in  its 
account  of  the  Commencement  exercises  thus 
commented  upon  his  Commencement  oration: 

"  Mr.  George  Arrowsmith  was  the  next  speaker 
and  with  the  deliberation  and  ease  seldom  ob- 
servable on  Commencement  occasions,  proceeded 
to  discuss  in  eloquent  and  perspicuous  language, 
the  popular  subject,  '  National  Institutions.' 
For  racy  and  unique  style,  terse  and  vigorous 
thought,  and  finish  of  illustration,  this  oration 
was  a  superior  production,  and  Mr.  Arrowsmith's 
effort  was  a  triumphant  one,  excelled  by  none  of 
the  day,  and  won  for  him  many  laurels,  as  well 
as  a  shower  of  bouquets  thrown  to  him  on  retir- 
ing from  the  stage." 

Among  his  classmates  whom  I  now  recall  were 
Hon.  Enos  Clarke,  Henry  A.  Cordo,  D.D.,  Way- 
land  Hoyt,  D.D.,  Hon.  William  A.  Lewis,  Egbert 
R.  Middlebrook,  Esq.,  Daniel  E.  Pope,  Esq., 
Thomas  Edgar  Stillman,  Esq.,  and  George  M. 
Stone,  D.D. 


LAW  STUDENT  AND  TUTOR 


"TOURING  his  college  life  he  was  frequently 
^"^  disturbed  by  the  thought  that  he  was  en- 
joying comparatively  an  easy  life,  spending  the 
money  which  his  brother  and  father  at  home 
were  working  hard  to  earn;  and  in  letters  to  his 
brother  he  referred  to  it  occasionally,  expressing 
a  wish  that  he  too  could  be  making  a  living. 
He  intended  at  the  close  of  his  collegiate  course 
to  study  law.  This  he  saw  would  involve  further 
expense  to  his  father.  Moved  by  these  con- 
siderations, he  conceived  the  idea  of  teaching  in 
Hamilton,  in  conjunction  with  the  pursuit  of  his 
legal  studies.  Accordingly,  on  June  ipth,  1859, 
he  wrote  his  father  from  Hamilton  that  the 
position  of  tutor  in  the  Grammar  School  had 
been  tendered  him  by  an  almost  unanimous  vote 
of  the  faculty,  announcing  his  disposition  to 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  23 

accept  it  and  his  reasons,  and  asking  his  father's 
views  and  advice  upon  the  subject.  P.  P. 
Brown,  Jr.,  the  principal  of  the  Grammar  School 
connected  with  the  University,  a  warm  friend, 
wrote  to  his  father  about  the  same  time  stating: 
"  It  gives  me  great  pleasure  to  announce  to  you 
that  the  faculty  of  the  University  with  great 
cordiality,  unanimously  voted  to-day  to  recom- 
mend your  son  George  to  the  board  of  the  Uni- 
versity, to  be  appointed  assistant  teacher  in  the 
Grammar  School,  commencing  in  October  with 
the  next  academic  year.  The  different  members 
of  the  faculty  expressed  themselves  as  highly 
pleased  with  his  scholarship  and  manly  deport- 
ment and  had  no  doubt  of  his  success  in  his  new 
position." 

George  accepted  the  position  tendered  him  and 
in  October,  1859,  entered  upon  his  duties.  At 
the  same  time  he  entered  the  law  office  of  Hon. 
Charles  Mason,  a  Judge  of  the  Supreme  Court, 
and  the  leading  lawyer  of  Madison  County, 
under  whose  direction  he  pursued  his  legal 
studies.  Thus  is  explained  how  he  came  to 
study  law  and  afterwards  to  be  admitted  to  the 
bar  in  New  York  rather  than  in  New  Jersey, 
the  State  of  his  nativity,  where  his  success  could 
have  been  promoted  by  the  aid  of  influential 
relatives  and  friends.  It  was  a  matter  of  con- 
venience rather  than  choice,  for  he  was  a  Jersey- 


34  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

man  at  heart,-though  he  had  formed  many  strong 
friendships  and  pleasant  associations  in  the  place 
of  his  adopted  home.  Two  years  later  in  a 
letter  addressed  to  the  writer,  who  was  then  a 
law  student  in  Trenton,  New  Jersey,  after  ex- 
pressing regrets  that  he  too  could  not  be  study- 
ing in  the  same  State,  he  says,  "  but  my  divinity 
that  shapes  my  end  has  seemed  to  decree  other- 
wise ;  "  and  again  he  says  in  the  same  letter,  "  I 
do  wish  I  could  come  to  Trenton,  and  if  it  were 
not  for  losing  all  I  have  done  in  this  State  I 
should  think  about  it." 

For  three  or  four  years  before  his  enlistment 
he  was  a  frequent  contributor  to  the  Union,  a 
Democratic  paper  of  Hamilton,  furnishing  many 
spicy  and  incisive  articles  of  a  partisan  nature. 
This  led  to  a  personal  difficulty  in  March,  1860, 
with  the  editor  of  the  opposition  paper,  who  was 
Thomas  L.  James,  afterwards  Postmaster  of  New 
York,  and  later  Postmaster-General  in  the  cabi- 
net of  President  Garfield.  Malevolence,  how- 
ever, could  find  no  place  in  the  heart  of  either. 
Forgiveness  quickly  interceded  and  amicable  re- 
lations were  restored. 

About  the  year  1860  or  '61,  a  road  contro- 
versy occurred  between  George's  father,  Major 
Arrowsmith,  and  some  of  his  neighbors,  in 
which  an  altercation  arose  between  George  and 
Henry  S.  Little,  Esq.,  the  lawyer  for  the  appli- 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  25 

cants.  It  has  been  reported  that  George  on 
this  occasion  actually  assaulted  Mr.  Little, 
which  is  not  true.  As  the  affair  excited  much 
interest,  and  erroneous  impressions  still  prevail 
as  to  how  far  George  lost  the  control  of  his 
temper  on  this  occasion,  Senator  Little  at  my 
request  furnished  me  with  an  account  of  it  as 
follows  : 

"  Your  request  for  information  in  regard  to 
the  road  case  in  which  George  Arrowsmith  and 
I  had  some  altercation  is  before  me.  So  many 
incidents  had  escaped  me  that  I  delayed  answer- 
ing you  until  I  could  see  Senator  Hendrickson, 
who  was  one  of  my  clients  in  the  matter.  Yes- 
terday I  dined  with  him  and  refreshed  my  mem- 
ory by  his.  He  and  the  Major  were  close  friends, 
politically  and  otherwise.  In  this  case  they  were 
wide  apart,  as  were  many  farmers  on  the  line  of 
the  new  road.  The  road  ended  in  the  Middle- 
town  and  Keyport  road,  I  believe,  near  the  mill, 
and  was  the  continuation  of  a  road  that  extended 
up  through  the  Senator's  property,  and  enabled 
the  farmers  in  that  section  to  go  down  to  the 
shore  for  fish  and  other  purposes,  and  went  shy 
of  the  Major's  mill.  He  opposed  it  with  his  ac- 
customed skill  and,  as  you  know,  was  a  most 
formidable  adversary.  At  that  time  road  cases 
were  fought  under  a  black  flag,  no  quarter 
being  given  or  asked.  The  Major  had  many 


26  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

roads  that  converged  to  his  mill — this  one  did 
not ;  and  posted  by  the  Senator  and  others,  I 
made  a  hot  fight,  doubtless  said  things  exasper- 
ating enough  to  stir  as  cool  a  man  as  the  Major, 
and  more  than  enough  to  anger  his  young  and 
gallant  son.  We  must  have  had  a  good  case  for 
the  surveyors  laid  the  road.  This  finally  mad- 
dened George  and  he  violently  denounced  me, 
and  probably  but  for  the  interference  of  his 
friends  would  have  assaulted  me.  I  never 
blamed  him  ;  on  the  contrary,  respected  him  all 
the  more  for  defending  his  old  father.  I  have 
no  doubt  I  was  in  fault  for  not  using  more  mod- 
eration. After  there  was  time  for  cooling  we 
were  just  as  good  friends  as  before.  That  was 
saying  not  a  little,  for  I  was  a  warm  admirer  of 
his.  His  patriotism  had  stood  as  mine  had 
against  adverse  surrounding  influences.  You 
may  remember  the  peace  meeting  that  well  nigh 
led  to  bloodshed  at  Middletown.  Most  of  the 
Democrats  of  influence  had  signed  a  call  for  a 
meeting  to  denounce  the  administration  and 
declare  for  peac**.  I  refused  to  sign  it  and  so 
far  as  it  could  be  done  was  read  out  of  the 
party.  So  you  see  there  was  a  bond  of  union 
between  us.  I  do  not  know  after  writing  so 
much  that  I  have  aided  you  in  the  slightest  to 
anything  that  may  be  useful." 

Senator  Little,  holding  the  affirmative  of  the 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL,  ARROWSMITH.  87 

case,  had  the  right  of  re^ply.  As  he  says,  he 
doubtless  said  things  exasperating  enough — a 
statement  no  one  will  controvert  who  is  at  all 
familiar  with  Mr.  Little's  sarcasm  and  the  free- 
dom with  which  he  was  wont  to  use  it.  When 
he  had  finished,  George  arose  to  reply.  Mr.  Lit- 
tle objected.  This  application  of  the  "gag  law," 
as  George  considered  it,  is  probably  what  stirred 
his  anger  more  than  anything  else,  and  led  to 
the  violent  denunciation  of  his  opponent.  As 
his  most  intimate  friends  know,  George  was 
possessed  of  a  tranquil  demeanor  not  easily  dis- 
turbed. The  circumstances  mentioned  only 
show  that  he  could  be  aggressively  impetuous 
for  cause.  It  was  not  a  weakness.  On  the  bat- 
tle field  a  like  impetuosity  of  temperament  won 
for  him  the  appellation  of  the  "Young  Lion." 

Senator  Little's  reference  to  the  famous  or  in- 
famous Middletown  peace  meeting  recalls  vivid- 
ly the  distinction  between  the  two  kinds  of 
Democrats  of  those  times.  One  carried  the  flag 
and  kept  step  to  the  music  of  the  Union.  The 
other  was  quite  indifferent  to  both  flag  and 
Union,  and  loyal  only  to  party.  George  was  of 
the  former  class,  as  subsequent  pages  will  illus- 
trate. 


HIS   PATRIOTISM    KINDLED. 

T  X  April,  1861,  George  passed  his  legal  exam- 
ination  and  was  duly  licensed  as  a  member 
of  the  New  York  bar.  About  this  time  occurred 
the  assault  on  Fort  Sumter.  Excited  crowds 
of  citizens  nightly  gathered  around  the  village 
post-office,  impatiently  awaiting  the  distribution 
of  the  mails  with  the  latest  news  from  Charles- 
ton Harbor.  On  one  of  these  occasions  a  rebel 
sympathizer,  hearing  the  announcement  that  the 
National  flag  was  actually  assaulted,  suffered 
his  enthusiasm  to  elope  with  his  judgment  by 
an  open  avowal  of  a  wish  that  the  South  might 
succeed,  adding  that  he  for  one  was  ready  to 
fight  with  them.  George  was  present,  and  in- 
stantly mounting  a  box,  called  for  the  man  who 
had  uttered  the  treasonable  sentiment,  demand- 
ng  a  retraction.  A  retraction  not  forthcoming, 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  29 

he  denounced  him  as  a  vile  traitor  in  terms  of 
bitter  wrath  and  indignation  until  the  man 
quailed  under  his  fiery  invective  and  slunk  out 
of  view.  "No  man,"  he  said,  "could  insult  the 
national  emblem  in  his  presence  without  his  in- 
dignant protest."  His  patriotism  kindling  as 
he  proceeded,  he  proclaimed  he  was  willing 
then  and  there  to  enlist  as  a  soldier  in  the  Union 
cause,  and  appealing  to  the  crowd  he  asked, 
"How  many  will  go  with  me?"  There  were 
numerous  responses.  In  a  few  hours  fifty  men 
had  signed  the  muster-roll.  On  Monday,  April 
29th,  these  assembled  at  their  rendezvous,  and 
organizing  under  the  name  of  the  Union 
Guards,  unanimously  selected  George  Arrow- 
smith  as  their  Captain.  The  Republican  of  Ham- 
ilton, in  a  magnanimous  spirit,  forgetting  past 
differences,  commended  the  selection  in  the  fol- 
lowing generous  terms  of  approval  :  "The  ex- 
cellence of  the  selection  is  not  to  be  disputed. 
Captain  Arrowsmith  is  a  young  man  of  high 
character  and  fine  abilities.  He  will  be  every 
inch  a  soldier,  as  he  is  a  scholar,  and  if  the  op- 
portunity offers,  the  Hamilton  Volunteers  under 
his  lead  will  attain  all  the  honor  and  glory  to 
which,  we  are  led  to  believe,  their  aspirations 
reach." 

They  prepared  at  once  for  their  departure  to 
Utica  to  join  Colonel  Christian's  regiment,  then 


30  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

forming.  It  was  a  solemn  day  for  Hamilton. 
Business  was  entirely  suspended.  The  weather 
was  delightful,  and  the  village  was  thronged 
with  people.  There  were  many  aching  hearts 
and  tearful  eyes.  Fifty  of  the  noblest,  bravest 
and  best  young  men  of  Hamilton  leaving  their 
homes  and  kindred  to  confront  the  dangers  of 
war  !  At  eleven  o'clock  the  procession  formed 
under  the  direction  of  three  leading  citizens  of 
the  town,  acting  as  Marshals.  These  were 
Lieutenant  Colonel  H.  G.  Beardsley,  Senator 
John  J.  Foote  and  James  Putman.  The  order 
was  as  follows  :  First,  Band  ;  second,  Volun- 
teers, under  command  of  Captain  George  Arrow- 
smith  ;  third,  Clergy  and  Professors  of  Madison 
University;  fourth,  Ladies  ;  fifth,  Citizens. 
After  parading  the  principal  streets,  they  assem- 
bled in  front  of  the  hotel,  where  a  fervent  and 
affecting  prayer  was  offered  by  the  Rev.  W.  A. 
Brooks,  after  which,  on  behalf  of  the  ladies  of 
Hamilton,  David  J.  Mitchell,  Esq  ,  an  eminent 
lawyer  then  of  Syracuse,  but  formerly  of  Ham- 
ilton, who  had  done  great  service  by  his  war 
speeches  in  arousing  the  public  enthusiasm,  pre- 
sented the  company  with  a  beautiful  silk  banner 
in  a  stirring  and  eloquent  speech,  which  was  re- 
sponded to  by  Captain  Arrowsmith  with  due 
acknowledgments  for  himself  and  company. 
After  a  presentation  to  Captain  Arrowsmith  of 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  31 

an  elegant  revolver  and  a  like  presentation  to 
two  other  officers,  by  different  citizens,  the  vol- 
unteers entered  vehicles,  and  "amidst  a  perfect 
tempest  of  cheers  and  waving  of  handkerchiefs," 
started  for  Utica.  The  report  of  the  occasion 
says  there  were  uttered  many  a  "  God  speed 
you,"  and  many  a  tear  trickled  down  the  cheeks 
of  those  who  had  loved  ones  among  the  patriots, 
as  they  moved  away. 


ENROLLMENT  AS  A  SOLDIER. 


journey  of  twenty-nine  miles  was  a 
series  of  ovations.  Arriving  at  Utica  they 
were  quartered  in  the  City  Hall,  where  they 
partook  of  a  supper  provided  for  them.  The 
next  morning  they  were  sworn  in,  and  being 
now  enrolled,  they  proceeded  to  the  election  of 
officers,  George  Arrowsmith  being  chosen  Cap- 
tain as  at  the  informal  election  of  the  day  be- 
fore. The  company  was  soon  filled  up  to  the 
requisite  number  of  men  and  joined  the  Twenty 
sixth  Regiment,  New  York  Volunteers,  recruited 
in  the  vicinity  of  Utica,  and  received  the  desig- 
nation of  Company  D.  The  regiment  proceeded 
to  the  military  post  at  Elmira,  where  it  remained 
two  months  in  barracks,  and  improved  its  time 
in  drilling  and  parading. 

Shortly  after  the  arrival  of   the  regiment  at 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  33 

Elmira,  Captain  Arrowsmith  addressed  the 
ladies  of  Hamilton  the  following  letter,  acknowl- 
edging in  grateful  terms  the  receipt  of  their 
gifts,  consisting  of  four  barrels  of  numerous 
luxuries  in  the  form  of  eatables  and  clothing  : 

ELMIRA,  N.  Y.,  May  i;th,  1861. 
To  the  Ladies  of  Hamilton  : 

Your  gift  was  received  yesterday,  and  received 
with  a  good  round  of  cheers,  I  assure  you.  Just 
previous  to  their  arrival,  we  received  the  kind 
letter  which  you  sent  us,  and  I  read  it  to  the 
company  assembled  around  the  stove  in  the 
rough  barracks,  eager  to  hear  anything  from 
those  at  home  whose  sympathy  they  are  con- 
fident of  participating  in. 

In  three  or  four  instances  since  we  left  Hamil- 
ton, have  we  found  it  necessary  to  throw  to  the 
breeze  the  beautiful  banner  which  you  presented 
us,  to  keep  the  company  together.  Your  letter, 
followed  so  closely  by  four  barrels  full  of  solid 
"  sympathy,"  will  do  more  to  keep  the  peace 
and  preserve  order  for  three  or  four  days,  than 
so  many  barrels  of  "army  regulations  "  would. 
The  butter  and  shirts  were  acceptable  especially. 
"  The  rations  "  do  not  include  butter,  and  the 
latter  on  account  of  the  delay  of  the  military 
departments  in  getting  our  uniforms,  were  ab- 


36  JJEUTENANT-COLONEL,  ARROWSMITH. 

Captain  Arrowsmith  found  his  duties  as  com- 
mandant too  engrossing  to  afford  time  to  corre- 
spond with  all  his  friends  individually,  and  to 
make  one  letter  answer  for  many  he  sent  a  com- 
munication to  the  Utica  Herald from  time  to  time 
over  the  signature  of  Aliquis.  These  letters  are 
interesting  as  a  part  of  the  history  of  his  regi- 
ment and  of  his  army  life.  Under  date  of  June 
9th,  1861,  he  writes  from  the  Elmira  Barracks 
as  follows  : 


ELMIRA,  BARRACKS  No.  3,  June  9,  1861. 
To  the  Editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald: 

Since  my  last  letter  the  regiment  has  been 
unusually  busy  in  drilling  and  parading,  and 
also  unusually  zealous  in  view  of  so">n  being  or- 
dered off.  On  Thursday  afternoon  we  received 
intelligence  that  a  party  of  Uticans,  with  the 
colors,  were  on  their  way  to  Elmira.  This  was 
very  welcome  news,  I  assure  you.  On  Friday 
morning  squads  of  men  from  the  companies 
scattered  in  all  directions  to  bring  in  evergreens 
and  bouquets  to  decorate  the  barracks,  in  which 
work  there  was  quite  a  spirit  of  emulation.  In 
an  hour  or  two  the  appearance  of  the  camp  was 
wonderfully  changed.  Rows  of  cedar  trees  sud- 
denly appeared  before  the  barracks,  the  flag- 
staffs  ornamented  with  wreaths  and  bouquets, 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.        '37 

and  all  sorts  of  mottoes  and  decorations  were 
fixed  on  the  neighboring  buildings — some  of  the 
men  solemnly  declared  "  it  was  a  regular  Fourth 
of  July."  At  eleven  o'clock  the  regiment  was 
drawn  into  line  for  the  presentation  of  colors, 
which  were  soon  exposed  to  view  amid  a  mur- 
mur of  admiration.  Judge  Smith,  of  Oneida 
County,  made  the  presentation  speech,  which 
was  characterized  by  his  usual  ability  and  vi- 
vacity. It  was  heard  in  silence  by  the  immense 
crowd  of  spectators  who  on  foot  and  in  carriages 
were  pressing  around  the  lines.  Colonel  Chris- 
tian received  the  colors  before  the  regiment,  and 
replied  with  military  brevity — the  few  words 
with  which  he  intrusted  to  them  that  flag  will 
not  soon  be  forgotten  by  the  regiment.  A  very 
large  crowd  of  citizens,  townsmen  and  towns- 
women,  as  I  before  said,  witnessed  the  presenta- 
tion of  the  flag,  and  the  troops  were  gratified  to 
notice  that  the  Female  College  for  the  first  time 
had  come  in  procession  upon  its  grounds  to  wit- 
ness the  parade. 

The  colors  were  presented  by  Mr.  William  H. 
Lewis  of  your  city,  whose  arrival  in  town  was 
a  source  of  great  joy  among  his  numerous 
friends  in  the  regiment.  Mr.  Lewis  and  Judge 
Smith  have  been  "  lionized "  among  the  men 
ever  since  the  ceremony.  Aft^r  the  presenta- 
tion the  whole  regiment  marched  to  the  resi- 


3S  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

dence  of  Mrs.  Maxwell,  at  whose  commodious 
mansion  the  Colonel  has  his  rooms,  and  the 
colors  were  there  left  while  the  procession 
returned.  I  cannot,  by  the  way,  mention  the 
name  of  Mrs.  Maxwell  without  also  mention- 
ing that  she  has  proved  herself,  ever  since 
we  have  been  here,  a  true  friend  to  the  regi- 
ment, and  never  has  the  private  or  officer 
been  turned  from  her  door  when  she  could  fur- 
nish anything  to  supply  his  wants  or  suit  his 
convenience. 

On  Friday  afternoon  also  we  received  our  ac- 
coutrements, canteens,  knapsacks,  haversacks, 
belts,  ammunition  boxes,  tents,  camp  kettles, 
which  gave  the  camp  an  appearance  still  more 
military — but  still  no  caps  or  underclothes  ! 
What  culpable  delay  !  The  day  closed  with  a 
parade  down  through  the  town  accompanied  by 
our  Utica  friends. 

There  never  has  been  a  better  feeling  in  the 
regiment  since  its  stay  at  Elmira  than  there  is 
at  present.  There  is  a  crowd  of  spectators 
every  afternoon  to  witness  our  battalion  drills — . 
this  afternoon  several  hundred.  Our  Utica 
friends,  ladies  and  all,  have  been  on  the  grounds 
a  great  part  of  the  time  since  they  arrived, 
and  yesterday  Mr.  Long  got  them  up  a  din- 
ner for  all  in  the  officers'  mess  room.  I  took 
a  little  pains  to  notice  the  kind  of  fare  which 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.        89 

he  provided,  and  found  it  as  follows  :  Beef 
soup,  roast  beef,  boiled  beef,  mashed  potatoes, 
pickled  tongue,  rice  pudding,  French  "  co- 
quettes," with  tea  and  the  usual  fixings.  Mr. 
Long  did  not  at  all  give  them  an  opportunity  to 
test  "the  hardships  of  camp  life." 

To-morrow  morning  we  suppose  most  of  our 
guests  will  start  for  Utica. 

Still  waiting  for  orders  !  ALIQUIS. 

Before  the  Twenty-sixth  Regiment  had  left 
Elmira,  Arrowsmith  acquired  an  enviable  repu- 
tation as  an  officer.  A  visitor  to  the  camp 
writes  under  date  of  June  nth,  1861,  that  he 
found  Captain  Arrowsmith  and  his  Company 
pleasantly  situated.  "The  Captain,"  he  states, 
"is  highly  spoken  of  by  his  fellow-officers,  and  is 
an  especial  favorite  of  those  in  superior  com- 
mand. His  company  is  looking  as  well  and  is 
under  as  good  drill  as  any  in  the  regiment. 
Colonel  Christian  says  there  is  no  better  officer 
in  the  regiment." 

The  day  before  leaving  Elmira  for  Washing- 
ton George  writes  as  follows  : 

ELMIRA,  BARRACKS  No.  3,  June  19,  1861. 
To  the  Editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald: 

I  trust  I  am  now  writing  my  last  letter  from 
Elmira.  It  is  stale  news  to  you,  probably,  th  a 


38  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

dence  of  Mrs.  Maxwell,  at  whose  commodious 
mansion  the  Colonel  has  his  rooms,  and  the 
colors  were  there  left  while  the  procession 
returned.  I  cannot,  by  the  way,  mention  the 
name  of  Mrs.  Maxwell  without  also  mention- 
ing that  she  has  proved  herself,  ever  since 
we  have  been  here,  a  true  friend  to  the  regi- 
ment, and  never  has  the  private  or  officer 
been  turned  from  her  door  when  she  could  fur- 
nish anything  to  supply  his  wants  or  suit  his 
convenience. 

On  Friday  afternoon  also  we  received  our  ac- 
coutrements, canteens,  knapsacks,  haversacks, 
belts,  ammunition  boxes,  tents,  camp  kettles, 
which  gave  the  camp  an  appearance  still  more 
military — but  still  no  caps  or  underclothes  ! 
What  culpable  delay  !  The  day  closed  with  a 
parade  down  through  the  town  accompanied  by 
our  Utica  friends. 

There  never  has  been  a  better  feeling  in  the 
regiment  since  its  stay  at  Elmira  than  there  is 
at  present.  There  is  a  crowd  of  spectators 
every  afternoon  to  witness  our  battalion  drills — . 
this  afternoon  several  hundred.  Our  Utica 
friends,  ladies  and  all,  have  been  on  the  grounds 
a  great  part  of  the  time  since  they  arrived, 
and  yesterday  Mr.  Long  got  them  up  a  din- 
ner for  all  in  the  officers'  mess  room.  I  took 
a  little  pains  to  notice  the  kind  of  fare  which 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  89 

he  provided,  and  found  it  as  follows  :  Beef 
soup,  roast  beef,  boiled  beef,  mashed  potatoes, 
pickled  tongue,  rice  pudding,  French  "co- 
quettes," with  tea  and  the  usual  fixings.  Mr. 
Long  did  not  at  all  give  them  an  opportunity  to 
test  "  the  hardships  of  camp  life." 

To-morrow  morning  we  suppose  most  of  our 
guests  will  start  for  Utica. 

Still  waiting  for  orders  !  ALIQUIS. 

Before  the  Twenty-sixth  Regiment  had  left 
Elmira,  Arrowsmith  acquired  an  enviable  repu- 
tation as  an  officer.  A  visitor  to  the  camp 
writes  under  date  of  June  nth,  1861,  that  he 
found  Captain  Arrowsmith  and  his  Company 
pleasantly  situated.  "The  Captain,"  he  states, 
"is  highly  spoken  of  by  his  fellow-officers,  and  is 
an  especial  favorite  of  those  in  superior  com- 
mand. His  company  is  looking  as  well  and  is 
under  as  good  drill  as  any  in  the  regiment. 
Colonel  Christian  says  there  is  no  better  officer 
in  the  regiment." 

The  day  before  leaving  Elmira  for  Washing- 
ton George  writes  as  follows  : 

ELMIRA,  BARRACKS  No.  3,  June  19,  1861. 
To  the  Editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald: 

I  trust  I  am  now  writing  my  last  letter  from 
Elmira.  It  is  stale  news  to  you,  probably,  th  a 


40  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSM1TH. 

last  Friday  it  was  announced  by  the  Colonel 
that  we  were  to  march  to  Washington  yester- 
day. Those  who  were  sick  at  heart  from  "hope 
long  deferred,"  suddenly  brightened  up,  but 
those  who  had  the  measles  and  mumps,  and 
such  unromantic  and  unwarlike  diseases,  did 
not  recover  so  easily.  So  for  this  reason,  and 
because  we  would  have  to  go  in  freight  cars  on 
Tuesday,  we  deferred  our  departure  until  next 
Friday. 

When  the  above  announcement  was  made  to 
the  regiment  in  line,  there  followed  the  wildest 
and  most  picturesque  scene  that  I  ever  wit- 
nessed. As  if  in  accordance  with  a  premeditat- 
ed plan,  the  men  immediately  hung  their  caps 
on  their  bayonets  and  broke  into  companies, 
which  marched  around  the  grounds  in  all  direc- 
tions, amid  the  wildest  screaming  and  huzzas. 
This  intelligence  has  also  had  the  effect  to  sepa- 
rate the  chaff  from  the  wheat,  and  there  have 
been  some,  but  very  few,  desertions.  Many 
have  absented  themselves  from  duty,  but  have 
returned  after  seeing  their  friends,  or  transact- 
ing such  important  business  as  visiting  wives, 
etc.  Last  Sunday  night  the  men  were  unusually 
uneasy,  and  just  before  dark  fourteen  of  them, 
with  their  side  arms,  ran  the  guard  at  once,  and 
were  pursued  by  several  of  the  picket  guard. 
After  dark  the  report  came  to  the  camp  that 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  41 

they  were  pursued  by  the  guard  in  a  large  wood, 
but  refused  to  be  taken.  The  Colonel  immedi- 
ately despatched  a  captain  and  twenty  men  to 
bring  them  in,  who  duly  tore  their  clothes,  tum- 
bled over  rocks,  and  fell  in  the  mud  in  the 
search,  with  military  promptness,  but  in  vain. 
When  the  captain  wished  to  coHect  them  to  re- 
turn home,  several  shots  were  fired  as  signals, 
which  had  the  effect  to  bring  out  the  surgeons 
toward  the  forest  with  the  grim  prospect  of  hav- 
ing some  fine  subjects.  Such  are  some  of  the  in- 
cidents of  the  camp.  The  fourteen  delinquents, 
however,  have  all  been  taken  or  have  returned. 

For  the  last  week  the  regiment  has  used  as  a 
drilling  ground  a  large  field  above  the  barracks, 
where  there  is  ample  space  for  all  battalion 
movements,  and  I  assure  you  drilling  has  been 
carried  on  as  much  as  the  physical  powers  of 
soldiers  could  sanction.  The  men  take  an 
especial  interest  in  street  firing,  with  a  view  to 
Baltimore,  I  expect,  for  it  is  now  well  settled 
that  we  are  to  start  on  Friday  morning,  with 
three  days'  provisions  and  fifteen  thousand 
rounds  of  cartridges.  Our  caps  and  shoes  are 
now  all  provided,  and  the  former  make  a  great 
improvement  in  the  appearance  of  the  regiment. 
To-night  they  made  a  second  parade  down  the 
town  and  were  lustily  applauded  by  the  other 
regiments  as  they  passed  their  barracks.  One 


42  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

of  the  evening  papers  in  town  contains  the  fol- 
lowing paragraph  : 

"This  afternoon  Colonel  Christian,  of  the 
Twenty-sixth  Regiment,  was  unexpectedly  pre- 
sented with  a  splendid  charger  by  Mr.  W.  H. 
Lewis,  on  the  part  of  the  citizens  of  Utica.  The 
presentation  was  made  suddenly  and  with  but 
little  ceremony,  but  the  soldiers  gave  three  hearty 
cheers  as  the  Colonel-mounted  the  horse  and  rode 
along  the  line's.  A  good  present  well  bestowed." 

Both  officers  and  men  in  this  regiment  feel 
very  grateful  to  the  ladies  of  Utica  and  vicinity 
for  the  interest  they  have  taken  in  our  welfare, 
displayed  as  it  has  been,  in  the  liberal  donations 
which  we  have  received.  You  cannot  imagine 
the  moral  effect,  aside  from  the  substantial  bene- 
fit, of  the  boxes  of  clothing  which  your  Utica 
ladies  have  from  time  to  time  sent  to  us.  Im- 
posed upon  by  clothing  contractors,  and  really 
neglected  by  the  State  government,  our  pay 
delayed  on  account  of  Albany  technicalities, 
these  donations  have  often  revived  the  droop- 
ing spirits  of  the  men — the  mere  idea  that  some 
one  was  interested  in  them.  The  ladies  of  Utica 
will  long  be  remembered  with  pleasure  by  the 
Twenty-sixth  Regiment. 

To-morrow  we  are  ordered  to  pack  up  and 
have  everything  in  readiness  to  move. 

ALIQUIS. 


EN  ROUTE  FOR  WASHINGTON. 

Thursday,  June  2oth,  the   regiment  start- 
ed  for  Washington.     The  following  letter 
is  descriptive  of  the  trip  : 

MERIDIAN  HEIGHTS,  WASHINGTON,  ) 
June  27th,  1861.  } 

To  the  Editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald: 

Excuse  my  tardiness  in  writing,  but  the  con- 
fusion consequent  upon  our  moving  from  El- 
mira  and  the  inconveniences  of  camp  life  have 
hitherto  discouraged  me.  However,  I  have  now 
reconciled  myself  to  circumstances,  and  am  sit- 
ting on  the  ground,  writing  on  a  box  of  car- 
tridges with  a  dull  lead  pencil. 

Our  trip  from  Elmira  was  very  pleasant  in 
the  main,  though  as  we  got  more  and  more 
toward  the  South  we  began  to  find  some  pretty 


44  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

warm  weather.  We  started  with  ninet'  en  cars 
and  two  locomotives,  and  did  not  change  trains 
until  we  arrived  at  Baltimore.  At  Williamsport 
the  regiment  received  a  fine  ovation,  were  pa- 
raded through  the  streets,  entertained  by  the 
ladies  in  the  finest  picnic  style — that  reminded  us 
all  of  the  old  Sabbath-school  celebrations  ere 
our  country  had  let  slip  the  dogs  of  war — every 
man  received  a  cigar  after  the  collation,  and 
amid  loud  cheering  the  heavy  train  bearing  the 
regiment  slowly  moved  from  the  town.  It  ap- 
peared as  though  every  inhabitant  in  the  town 
was  down  at  the  depot  to  see  us  off,  and  thus  all 
along  the  road  did  the  best  of  feeling  seem  to 
be  manifested  towards  the  volunteers.  We  rode 
all  night,  made  no  stop  at  Harrisburg,  and  in 
the  gray  of  the  morning  passed  a  guide  board 
with  "  The  State  Line  "  upon  it.  Then  did  your 
correspondent  cautiously  protrude  his  head 
from  the  car  window,  realizing  that  he  was  now 
"down  South" — saw  no  vile  secessionist  aiming 
at  it — became  very  bold  and  cried  "hurrah  !" — 
saw  no  man  that  looked  like  Jefferson  Davis's 
portrait,  so  I  did  not  fire  my  musket ;  pickets 
all  along  the  road  to  Baltimore,  encamped 
along  beautiful  streams,  guarding  the  bridges 
and  whiling  away  the  long  summer  days  in 
shooting  at  a  target. 

The  scenery  along  the  road  from  Harrisburg 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  45 

to  Baltimore  is  very  picturesque,  and  the  trip 
was  thus  rendered  quite  pleasant  and  interest- 
ing. No  secession  flags  were  seen,  but  we  were 
greeted  with  Union  demonstrations  as  we  passed 
along.  Finally  we  arrive  at  Baltimore,  after 
loading  at  the  last  station.  There  are  crowds 
of  people  along  the  streets,  but  with  the  excep- 
tion of  a  few  dubious  remarks  and  hisses,  there 
are  no  symptoms  of  disturbance.  The  troops 
march  through  in  grim  silence,  replying  to  no 
question,  and  not.  allowed  to  receive  refresh- 
ments or  water  from  the  crowd,  though  in  the 
broiling  sun.  Two  or  three  that  drank  water 
proffered  by  men  in  the  crowd  were  afterwards 
very  sick  and  afflicted  with  sore  mouths,  and 
it  is  thought  their  abstaining  from  Baltimore 
water  was  very  fortunate.  The  inhabitants  that 
followed  us  to  the  depot,  however,  seemed  to  be 
all  true  to  the  Union.  Our  stay  in  Baltimore 
was  very  short,  for  the  Washington  train  started 
as  soon  as  the  regiment  got  on  board.  We  ar- 
rived in  Washington,  having  passed  on  our  way 
several  camps  and  the  celebrated  Relay  House. 
By  the  time  we  arrived  at  the  station  near  the 
Capitol,  we  were  considerably  worn  out,  having 
had  little  or  no  sleep  in  the  cars  the  night  be- 
fore, and  having  exhausted  most  of  the  two 
days'  provisions  which  we  took  from  Elmira. 
The  men  now  saw  their  error  in  packing  so 


46  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

many  articles  in  their  knapsacks,  for  I  assure 
you  every  pound  counted  in  the  oppressive  heat 
and  the  broiling  sun  of  Washington.  On  alight- 
ing from  the  train  we  found  we  had  to  march  to 
Meridian  Heights,  a  hill  about  three  miles  from 
the  city.  Some  of  the  men  fainted  and  fell  out 
on  the  march  up,  overcome  with  heat  and  fa- 
tigue, but  the  men  from  the  camps  which  we 
passed  on  the  way  up  encouraged  the  boys, 
helped  them  carry  their  muskets  and  baggage, 
and  in  various  ways  expressed  the  sympathy  of 
brother  soldiers.  The  men  have  recovered  from 
this  fatigue,  and  are  healthier  on  the  whole  than 
they  were  in  Elmira.  The  night  we  arrived  our 
tents  had  to  be  erected,  and  as  it  was  getting 
late,  many  slept  in  the  open  air — but  we  were 
sufficiently  fatigued  to  sleep  almost  anywhere. 

Our  ground,  called  Camp  VanValkenburgh,  is 
finely  suited  for  parading  purposes,  but  is  badly 
supplied  with  water.  All  the  wells  around  here 
which  we  use  are  constantly  guarded,  as  some 
have  been  poisoned  by  the  Virginians. 

We  are  now  drawing  our  rations,  but  in  the 
confusion  attendant  upon  getting  this  military 
machinery  fairly  at  work  we  frequently  take 
some  long  fasts,  just  long  enough  to  make  us 
relish  the  pork,  bread  and  coffee  when  we  get 
it.  We  are,  however,  getting  along  better  and 
better  every  day. 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  47 

In  our  tents  we  of  course  sleep  generally  on 
the  "ground  floor,"  with  knapsacks,  valises  or 
stumps  for  pillows,  and  happy  are  they  who 
have  waterproof  blankets  to  lie  upon.  Our 
tents  are  rather  j-carce  and  rather  small,  and  not 
infrequently  we  see  feet  and  legs  protruding 
from  under  the  canvas,  which,  in  case  of  a 
shower  are  vigorously  hauled  in.  In  lack  of  the 
usual  conveniences,  bayonets  serve  for  forks  and 
candlesticks,  brush  houses  for  kitchens,  have- 
locks  for  handkerchiefs,  ammunition  boxes  for 
seats  and  tables  ;  while  at  times  there  are  vague 
rumors  that  shoes  and  boots  will  have  to  be 
used  to  make  soup  and  jerked  beef  of.  It  is  a 
novel  life,  but  we  have  every  confidence  that  our 
Quartermaster  will  make  it  as  agreeable  as  pos- 
sible. 

Our  captains  are  to-day  engaged  in  making 
out  our  new  pay  rolls,  and  we  understand  that 
they  will  be  immediately  responded  to.  We  are 
also  encouraged  to  hear  that  we  are  sure  to  be 
newly  uniformed  and  armed  in  a  few  days. 
•  We  have  been  alarmed  and  under  arms  twice 
already.  Last  Friday  night  a  sentinel  of  the 
Thirty-eighth,  New  York  Volunteers,  fired  his 
piece,  and  ten  of  our  regiments  were  instantly 
drawn  in  line  of  battle.  A  company  of  flying 
artillery  also  started  from  the  city.  Last  night, 
also,  some  cannonading  along  the  river  orca- 


48  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

sioned  a  "long  roll"  in  all  quarters,  and  all  the 
regiments  in  the  vicinity  were  under  arms.  In 
neither  case  was  there  any  occasion  for  the 
alarm,  but  scouting  parties  of  the  federal  regi- 
ments frequently  run  into  the  pickets  of  their 
own  friends  and  occasion  a  general  alarm,  but 
nevertheless  we  are  obliged  to  hold  ourselves  in 
readiness  for  action.  Right  on  our  flank  lies 
the  Thirty-eighth ;  in  a  field  about  two  hun- 
dred yards  from  us  lies  the  Eighteenth,  and  just 
beyond  them  in  a  large  grove  is  the  Fourteenth, 
and  a  number  of  other  New  York  regiments 
scattered  all  around  in  the  vicinity. 

I  cannot,  like  a  regular  Washington  corre- 
spondent, tell  all  about  the  strange  sights,  for 
I've  had  no  chance  to  see  anything  but  the  out- 
side of  the  Capitol  as  yet — at  present  I'd  like  to 
see  a  good,  comfortable  hotel. 

ALIQUIS. 

Occasionally  Captain  Arrowsmith  found  op- 
portunity to  run  up  to  the  city  of  Washington. 
The  capital  was  a  new  place  to  him  and  he  saw 
much  to  interest  him,  especially  in  the  way  of 
politicians  and  other  celebrities.  "  Here,"  says 
Eli  Perkins,  "  he  made  my  room  his  head- 
quarters where  on  my  return  I  frequently  found 
him  installed  with  a  bevy  of  officers.  You  know 
George  did  love  a  good  story  with  a  fine  point. 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.         49 

How  he  used  to  read  Artemus  Ward  to  me  !" 
On  his  return  from  Washington  he  writes  his 
brother  under  date  of  July  8th,  1861: 

"  In  the  reading  rooms  of  Willard's  Hotel  I  find 
a  great  deal  to  interest  me.  I  saw  there  last 
night  J.  C.  Breckenridge,  N.  P.  Willis,  Secretary 
Cameron,  Thurlow  Weed,  Colonel  Bartlett, 
Donnelly,  of  Wise-Donnelly  letter  notoriety, 
and  in  fact  army  and  naval  officers,  politicians 
and  congressmen  by  the  hundred.  *  *  *  * 
We  aVe  sworn  in-  the  United  States  service  only 
till  the  twenty-first  of  August,  when  I  suppose 
we  will  return  home.  I  have  learned  consider- 
able of  military  service,  and  if  I  ever  go  into  it 
again,  I  shall  strike  for  a  field  office.  I  suppose 
I  might  get  a  lieutenancy  in  the  regular  army,, 
which  I  would  like  firs.t  rate.  I  am  going  to  look 
around  a  little  with  a  view  to  that  while  I  am 
here."  „ 

He  writes  of  a  want  of  tent  accommodations, 
there  being  but  one  tent  for  five  persons,  and 
proceeds:  "We  sleep  on  the  ground  with  water- 
proof blankets  under  us  to  keep  off  the  damp- 
ness. These  were  given  to  our  company  by  the 
Hamilton  ladies,  who  have  an  organized  society 
to  attend  to  our  wants.  Our  victuals  consist  of 
pork,  bacon,  beef,  coffee,  beans,  rice  and  bread, 
which  are  weighed  out,  so  much  to  each  man. 
This  is  cooked  and  eaten  in  the  open  air.  The 


50  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

men  cook  their  own  food  in  little  frames,  with 
seven  iron  kettles  and  stew  pans.  We  get  plenty 
to  eat,  'such  as  it  is,  and  it  is  good  enough  what 
there  is  of  it.'  Once  when  I  first  arrived  I  went 
twenty-four  hours  without  eating  anything,  but 
it  was  more  to  keep  the  men  from  complaining 
than  because  I  could  not  get  it,  for  the  officers 
can  generally  get  along  pretty  well.  There  is 
always  more  or  less  confusion  when  we  move 
from  one  place  to  another,  and  sometimes  lack  of 
provisions,  but  usually  there  is  plenty.  I  stand 
it  very  well  now,  never  was  hardier,  and  have 
learned  to  eat  pork  and  drink  raw  coffee.  The 
men  do  their  washing  in  a  beautiful  stream  near 
the  camp,  in  which  they  go  in  squads.  My 
waiter  does  mine,  of  course,  the  whole  object 
being  merely  to  get  them  clean,  starching  and 
ironing  being  out  of  the  question.  We  have  two 
battalion  drills  every  day,  one  in  the  morning 
and  the  other  in  the  evening.  Sometimes  the 
whole  regiment  fires  ball  cartridges  at  once  in 
the  side  of  a  hill  by  way  of  exercise.  The 
muskets  carry  ounce  balls  about  the  size  of  a 
common  marble,  which  trim  the  limbs  from  the 
trees  in  front  of  us  finely,  I  assure  you.  Some 
of  the  farmers  around  are  Union  men,  and  some 
secessionists,  but  the  latter  are  compelled  to 
keep  very  quiet.  We  are  very  careful  as  to  the 
politics  of  the  pedlars  of  whom  we  buy  eatables. 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  51 

One  of  my  company  was  poisoned  coming 
through  Baltimore,  and  hasn't  been  well  since. 
The  country  looks  just  like  Jersey  in  nearly 
every  respect,  and  the  days  are  not  much  warmer 
than  a  good  hot  Jersey  day." 


BATTLE    OF    BULL    RUN. 

SUNDAY,  July  2ist,  the  Twenty-sixth 
Regiment  left  Washington  about  noon 
and  marched  to  Alexandria,  where  it  arrived 
about  two  o'clock.  Here  it  waited  until  night 
for  a  train  to  transport  it  to  Bull  Run,  where 
the  battle  was  going  on.  July  23d  Aliquis 
writes  from  Shooter's  Hill,  near  Alexandria, 
Virginia,  as  follows  : 

SHOOTER'S  HILL,  VA.,  July  23,  1861. 
To  the  Editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald: 

Still  another  step  towards  a  battle  and  still  a 
more  lively  realization  of  real  soldiering.  We 
left  Washington  on  Sunday  about  noon,  leaving 
the  sick  to  guard  our  camp,  and  arrived  at 
Alexandria  about  two  o'clock,  where  we  had  to 
wait  a  great  while  to  get  a  train  which  could 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  53 

transport  us  to  the  scene  of  action  whither  we 
were  marching.  Alexandria  is  indeed  a  desolate 
town.  Grass  grows  in  the  streets,  business  ap- 
pears suspended,  men  look  dismal  and  unhappy, 
and  everything  reminds  of  war.  The  Marshal 
House  is  continually  crowded  with  soldiers  tear- 
ing up  staircases,  floors,  etc.,  to  get  pieces  of 
wood  with  Ellsworth's  blood  on,  which,  by  the 
way,  must  have  flowed  in  great  abundance  in 
the  young  man's  veins,  if  I  may  judge  from  the 
numerous  specimens  I  have  seen.  While  wait- 
ing at  Alexandria,  we  continually  heard  heavy 
cannonading  from  the  south,  but  night  came  on, 
and  we  finally  lay  down  to  sleep  in  a  field  near 
the  depot,  in  the  open  air.  Soon,  however,  we 
were  called  up  and  put  on  a  train,  the  tops  and 
platforms  crowded  wherever  a  man  could  stick 
on,  and  we  started  towards  Fairfax.  Aliquis 
lay  on  top  of  a  car,  next  to  the  locomotive, 
gravely  winking  occasionally,  as  the  cinders  flew 
in  his  eyes,  and  now  and  then  "dreaming  the 
happy  hours  away,"  when  the  train  suddenly 
stopped  at  a  station  just  this  side  of  Fairfax, 
called  Springfield.  There  a  picket  was  thrown 
out  ahead,  and  we  were  stopped  a  while,  during 
which  we  received  the  astounding  intelligence 
that  our  forces  were  signally  defeated,  and  we 
were  ordered  to  fall  back  immediately  to  Alex- 
andria. When  we  got  back  we  found  Colonel 


54        LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

Kerrigan's  regiment  in  the  field  which  we  had 
occupied,  so  we  took  an  adjoining  one  and  slept 
till  morning,  notwithstanding  it  had  now  begun 
to  rain.  When  we  awoke,  trains  crowded  with 
retreating  troops  were  coming  hurriedly  in,  and 
the  roads  were  crowded  with  stragglers  from  all 
sorts  of  regiments,  in  a  weary  and  disorderly 
retreat.  Our  regiment  now  commenced  its 
march  up  towards  Fort  Ellsworth,  to  cover  their 
retreat  so  that  they  might  rally  behind  us.  And 
here  a  grotesque  but  most  disheartening  scene 
met  our  eyes — men  from  New  Jersey,  New  York, 
Pennsylvania,  Maine,  all  mixed  up  together,  foot- 
sore and  ragged,  in  no  order,  and  apparently 
under  no  officers.  All  parts  of  the  North  were 
represented  in  the  rout — Zouaves,  with  their 
gay  uniforms  torn,  dirty  and  blood-soiled, 
soldiers  without  shoes,  some  without  guns  or 
knapsacks  ;  others,  more  determined,  carrying 
away  three  or  four  of  each  ;  some  without  eyes, 
some  without  ears  and  others  with  various  flesh 
wounds,  riding,  limping  or  running — such  was 
the  picturesque  procession  which  went  along 
the  road  all  yesterday  forenoon.  As  they  met 
us,  they  told  us  of  the  deadly  fire  of  the  batteries, 
told  us  to  turn  around  immediately,  and  of  the 
manner  in  which  the  rebels  bayoneted  all  our 
wounded  on  the  field,  and  such  not  very  encour- 
ging  details.  Others  cheered  us,  and  hoped 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  55 

"  we'd  give  'em  Jesse,"  etc.  We  finally  went  to 
Fort  Ellsworth  and  entered  it,  where  we  thought 
the  cannon,  the  abatis,  the  ditch  and  the  ram- 
parts looked  very  welcome  after  the  accounts 
given  us.  Well,  as  the  Dutchman  said,  we  did 
not  stop  there,  but  went  over  beyond  and 
bivouacked  in  a  grove,  where  in  a  cold  rain, 
without  tents,  we  made  sort  of  a  cold  breakfast. 
We  expected  an  attack  all  day  yesterday,  and  it 
was  all  we  could  do  to  keep  the  muskets  dry. 
Abowt  noon  the  companies  began  to  go  off  in 
search  of  better  quarters.  Aliquis  and  his  com- 
pany got  into  a  deserted  dwelling  house,  where 
with  good  fire-places  and  fences  we  managed  to 
get  comfortably  dry.  We  put  on  extra  pickets 
in  the  night,  as  it  was  reported  that  an  immense 
force  was  approaching,  and  there  is  some  danger 
of  being  pushed  off  into  the  Potomac.  I  really 
think  the  rebel  General  is  very  foolish  if  he  does 
not  attack  us  to-day.  Most  of  our  regiments 
are  completely  demoralized,  and  are  crossing 
the  river  in  crowds.  The  New  York  Twenty- 
sixth,  Seventeenth,  and  some  others,  I  think,  are 
entitled  to  great  credit  for  their  present  stand, 
as  the  majority  are  completely  panic  stricken. 
A  Pennsylvania  regiment  near  us  is  to  day  hur- 
riedly packing  up  to  return  home,  their  time 
having  expired,  which  is  not  extremely  encour- 
aging either.  The  storm  has  now  ceased,  and 


56  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

the  morning  is  beautiful.  Our  ideas  of  the 
enemy  are  all  conjectural,  and  we  know  not 
what  to-day  will  bring  forth.  I  hope,  however, 
when  I  write  again  to  give  you  better  news. 

Among  the  consoling  features  of  our  soldier- 
ing is  the  good  feeling  among  our  troops.  The 
Captain  of  Company  D  was  lately  presented 
with  an  elegant  sword,  a  portable  camp  bed,  a 
camp  stool,  and  other  articles,  by  the  members 
of  his  company.  ALIQUIS. 

The  discouraging  effect  of  the  battle  of  Bull 
Run  upon  our  troops  and  their  want  of  con- 
dence  in  the  ability  of  their  commanders  is  re- 
flected in  the  following  letter  : 

SHOOTER'S  HILL,  VA..  July  23,  noon,  1861. 
To  the  Editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald : 

In  my  last  I  gave  you  our  impressions  of  our 
present  state,  as  we  had  them  this  morning. 
Now  our  situation  seems  no  better,  and  our 
regiment  must  shift  for  themselves.  General 
McDowell  we  know  nothing  of ;  some  say  he  yet 
has  a  force  with  him  to  the  south  of  us,  others 
that  he  is  now  at  Arlington  House  completely 
helpless  ;  others  that  he  is  in  Washington.  One 
thing  is  certain  :  the  few  troops  this  side  of  the 
river  have  no  head  that  amounts  to  anything, 
and  rely  solely  on  our  Colonel  Christian.  There 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  57 

are  only  about  4,000  men  that  can  be  relied  on 
this  side  of  the  Potomac.  We  are  on  the  outposts, 
along  the  Leesburg  and  Fairfax  turnpikes,  about 
eight  miles  from  the  "  Long  Bridge  "  to  Wash- 
ington. We  are  hourly  expecting  an  attack,  in 
which  we  shall  hold  out  as  long  as  we  can,  and 
if  compelled  to  retreat  will  fall  back  to  the  Long 
Bridge.  If  unable  to  cross  that,  we  will  there 
make  a  desperate  stand  on  the  banks  of  the  river. 
I  have  no  confidence  in  any  General  or  Colonel 
near, here  but  Christian.  He  yesterday  recom- 
mended the  occupying  of  certain  hills  near  here, 
which  has  been  done.  As  it  is  now,  we  have  to 
rely  upon  ourselves,  and  we  only  hope  our 
Colonel  may  be  made  a  Brigadier-General,  as 
is  much  talked  of,  and  then  we  might  indeed 
be  more  secure.  Regiments  are  continually 
crossing  to  Washington,  instead  of  crossing 
from  there  here  as  it  should  be.  I  can  count 
from  my  present  position  three  or  four  camps 
entirely  deserted.  We  have  a  Captain  detailed 
every  day  to  command  the  pickets,  which  are 
scouring  the  woods  two  or  three  miles  towards 
Fairfax. 

The  New  York  Herald's  account  of  the  battle 
is  a  most  egregious  burlesque.  If  his  reporter 
had  seen  the  disorderly  rout  that  I  have,  he 
would  not  have  made  so  glaring  a  heading  to 
his  column.  Part  of  the  regiments  that  he  men- 


58        LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

tions  were  not  at  all  in  the  action  any  more  than 
we  were.  As  for  us,  we  were  ordered  there  and 
then  ordered  back  after  the  rout  had  begun. 
There  is  nothing  to  hinder  15,000  rebels  from 
encamping  right  opposite  Washington  this  morn- 
ing, and  we  understand  they  have  170,000  be- 
tween here  and  Richmond.  As  I  said  before, 
there  are  only  five  or  six  regiments  here  that  are 
reliable — the  others  are  breaking  up  and  scatter- 
ing, some  to  their  homes,  and  some  to  Washing- 
ton. I  hope  General  Scott  will  soon  restore 
order,  for  in  him  we  have  all  confidence,  and 
also  in  our  Colonel  ;  beyond  that  deponent  saith 
nothing.  We  are  to-day  occupying  some  of  the 
camps  that  have  been,  as  I  should  think,  basely 
deserted;  but  their  tents  are  very  acceptable. 

ALIQUIS. 

July  24,  1861. — Still  there  is  no  further  ad- 
vance of  either  army.  There  was  no  disturbance 
last  night,  though  we  were  called  out  once  into 
line  by  a  "long  roll"  in  some  of  the  regiments 
on  our  left.  Yesterday  afternoon  scouts  were  sent 
out  around  to  ascertain  our  true  state.  Our  regi- 
ment daily  sends  about  fifty  men  some  distance 
up  the  Fairfax  road  as  a  picket,  and  yesterday 
afternoon  the  Thirty-second  New  York  Regi- 
ment came  up  and  encamped  just  in  the  rear  of 
them.  Near  a  Theological  Seminary,  on  our 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  59 

right,  is  the  Fifteenth,  under  McLeod  Murphy. 
In  Fort  Ellsworth,  which  is  about  a  quarter  of  a 
mile  from  us,  is  Colonel  Lansing  with  his  Seven- 
teenth, and  also  with  a  Massachusetts  regiment 
near  him.  Some  others  are  also  down  on  the 
flats,  but  a  great  many  of  the  camps  there  are 
deserted.  Last  evening  in  the  moonlight,  the 
woods  in  which  we  at  first  stopped,  were  entirely 
cut  down  by  our  regiment,  so  as  to  expose  the 
Leesburg  road  to  the  guns  of  Fort  Ellsworth. 
Colonel  Lansing  also  tore  down  a  cemetery  wall 
near  the  fort,  so  as  to  use  his  guns  to  the  best 
advantage.  Major  Jennings,  who  had  been  sent 
off  by  the  Colonel  on  extra  duty,  returned 
yesterday  afternoon.  We  find,  by  the  way,  that 
they  have  not  forgotten  us  over  in  Washington. 
About  four  o'clock  yesterday  afternoon  we  saw 
a  body  of  cavalry  come  up  the  road  escorting  a 
carriage  containing  four  persons — President 
Lincoln,  William  H.  Seward,  General  McDowell, 
and  our  Adjutant,  David  Smith.  The  latter  es- 
corted them  to  Colonel  Christian's  headquarters, 
where  they  remained  for  some  time. 

Colonel  Christian  occupies  a  large  brick  house 
owned  by  a  Major  Smoot,  now  a  Confederate 
Major.  Company  B  also  is  quartered  in  a  por- 
tion of  it.  Company  A  is  in  a  house  near  our 
bivouac  ground  ;  Company  D  in  a  large  frame 
house  off  on  the  right  ;  Company  G  in  a  house 


60  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

on  the  left,  used  for  a  hospital  ;  the  other  com- 
panies occupy  tents  which  were  deserted  by  a 
Pennsylvania  regiment.  It  is  on  a  beautiful 
bluff  where  we  are  encamped,  with  a  fine  view 
of  the  Potomac,  while  Washington  with  its  large 
buildings  presents  a  splendid  appearance  in  the 
distance. 

The  defeat  of  McDowell  is  now  known  to  be 
much  less  than  was  at  first  supposed.  Stragglers 
are  coming  in  even  yet,  and  I  suppose  the  regi- 
ments are  speedily  re-organizing  over  the  river. 
I  can  see  this  morning  the  glitter  of  bayonets 
down  along  this  side  of  the  Potomac,  as  if  a 
regiment  was  moving  from  the  Long  Bridge  to 
Alexandria.  I  suppose  a  large  army  will  soon 
be  gathered  here  again. 

No  more  at  present.  I  am  now  about  to  start 
with  a  picket  guard  up  the  Fairfax  road  to 
Clouds  Mills.  The  officers  and  men  are  all  out 
watching  a  balloon,  which  has  just  gone  up 
from  Washington.  ALJQUIS. 


CAMP  AND  PICKET. 

T  TNDP;R  date  of  July  26th,  1861,  Captain  Ar- 
rowsmith  writes  his  brother  from  Shoot- 
er's Hill,  Va.,  a  letter  which  indicates  a  better 
feeling  and  a  return  of  confidence  among  the 
troops  : 

Dear  Brother: 

I  have  with  my  regiment  crossed  over  into 
Virginia.  As  you  said  in  a  letter  (which  I  re- 
ceived last  night)  that  you  received  the  Utica 
Herald  regularly,  there's  no  need  of  writing  such 
minute  details  in  my  letters  home.  We  are  still 
quartered  on  Shooter's  Hill,  mostly  in  tents,  but 
I  marched  my  company  into  an  unoccupied 
dwelling  house,  owned  by  a  man  now  in  the 
rebel  army.  It  is  a  fine,  large  house,  and  its 
fireplaces  and  cupboards  come  very  handily  for 
our  use.  We  sleep  around  on  the  floors  in  all 


62  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

sorts  of  positions.     Half  the  houses  around  here 
have  been  thus  deserted. 

The  first  day  or  so  after  the  battle  this  regi- 
ment was  in  a  "ticklish"  situation.  The  time 
of  many  regiments  had  expired  and  they  hur- 
riedly crossed  the  river,  while  others,  panic 
stricken,  followed  them  in  a  disorderly  manner, 
leaving  their  tents  still  standing.  It  was  gener- 
ally believed  that  a  large  force  of  rebels  were 
approaching.  At  one  time  there  were  only 
about  four  thousand  left  here.  Now,  however, 
they  are  returning — a  large  force  is  collecting — 
batteries  are  being  erected — groves  and  forests 
are  cut  down  to  give  free  scope  to  the  cannon, 
and  desolation  as  usual  betokens  the  presence 
of  a  large  army.  Last  Wednesday  the  Colonel 
sent  me  off  with  a  company  of  thirty-two  picked 
men  as  a  picket  guard  about  five  miles  towards 
Fairfax,  for  the  purpose  of  first  giving  the  alarm 
in  case  of  a  night  attack.  The  place  was  called 
Clouds  Mills  and  it  was  the  place  where  Ells- 
worth's Zouaves  carried  on  the  flour  business — 
perhaps  you  saw  a  sketch  of  it  in  a  pictorial 
paper.  There  we  had  a  barricade  of  barrels 
filled  with  sand  and  piled  up  in  the  road,  with  a 
mill  on  our  right  and  a  high  hill  on  the  left. 
We  took  three  rebel  dragoons — fine-looking  fel- 
lows— and  gave  them  over  to  the  General  in 
command.  They  had  a  flag  of  truce,  which  was 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  63 

considered  a  mere  subterfuge,  and  they  are  yet 
detained  as  spies.  In  the  afternoon  a  boy  came 
down  to  the  barricade  and  said  a  party  of  rebel 
cavalry  had  carried  off  his  father,  who  was  a 
Union  man.  I  rather  suspected  the  boy,  but 
nevertheless  took  ten  men  and  proceeded  with 
great  caution  about  two  and  a  half  miles  in 
the  country.  Finding  by  inquiry  of  negroes 
that  I  was  getting  within  the  rebel  lines,  and 
hearing  that  no  such  man  as  was  claimed  resid- 
ed there,  I  turned  back,  and  guess  pretty  luck- 
ily, for  that  night  some  rebel  cavalry  came  with- 
in a  mile  of  our  barricade.  I  remained  at  the 
mill  till  Thursday  noon,  living  on  the  neighbors, 
who  were  all  secessionists,  but  very  accommoda 
ting.  I  boarded  with  a  farmer  who  had  two  sons 
in  the  Southern  army,  and  who  had  had  a 
brother  killed  in  the  last  battle.  His  wife,  how- 
ever, put  no  arsenic  in  the  hoe-cakes,  and  we 
used  to  smokt  pipes  together  in  the  grove  by 
his  house.  This  is  a  queer  state  of  things,  after 
all. 

I  don't  know  that  I  ever  told  you  of  the  fine 
present  the  boys  of  my  company  gave  me — a 
gilt-mounted  sword  worth  twenty-five  dollars, 
a  camp  bed  that  will  fold  up  in  a  carpet  bag, 
worth  six  dollars  ;  a  camp  stool,  one  dollar  ;  and 
two  pairs  of  white  military  gloves,  three  dollars. 
I  got  a  stray  horse  the  other  day  off  at  the  mill 


64  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

and  he  is  around  in  camp  now.  A  great  many 
of  the  soldiers  go  around  here  and  there  on 
stray  horses  which  they  have  picked  up. 
Where  we  are  now  encamped  we  are  within  the 
range  of  Fort  Ellsworth  ;  so  to-morrow  we  are 
to  move  farther  up  in  the  country,  in  another 
range  of  hills.  Where  we  are  now  is  a  beatiful 
place.  From  my  window  I  can  see  the  Potomac 
and  the  Capitol  of  Washington  away  off  in  the 
distance — also  Alexandria,  which  now  is  liter- 
ally being  deserted.  I  don't  believe  there'll  be 
a  general  engagement  again  very  soon,  for  I 
learn  that  the  Southern  army  after  all  is  cut  up 
much  worse  than  ours.  Lincoln,  Seward  and 
General  McDowell  came  up  to  our  camp  the  day 
before  yesterday,  escorted  by  a  troop  of  cavalry, 
and  called  upon  the  Colonel.  I  have  seen  him 
now  several  times — attended  two  receptions 
when  in  Washington  and  got  introduced  to 
"Abe"  and  "Mrs.  Abe,"  the  latter  of  whom  is 
far  the  best  looking. 

I  understand  that  General  McClellan  is  here 
now  to  command  the  Army  of  the  Potomac.  I 
have  much  more  confidence  in  him  than  in  Mc- 
Dowell, for  we  are  all  of  the  impression  that  we 
can  beat  the  rebels  two  to  one,  on  a  fair  field 
and  with  prudent  officers.  GEORGE. 

George,  from  the  time  of  his  enlistment,  ap- 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  60 

plied  himself  diligently  to  the  work  of  master- 
ing military  tactics  and  had  become  quite  pro- 
ficient in  the  art.  He  was  also  a  very  popular 
officer,  both  with  his  subordinates  and  his  asso- 
ciates in  arms.  An  officer  of  his  Company  in  a 
letter  to  a  friend  thus  wrote  : 

"  Captain  Arrowsmith  is  the  idol  of  his  sol- 
diers. The  influence  he  wields  as  an  officer  is 
remarkable.  There  is  not  a  man  of  them  but 
would  cheerfully  follow  him  into  the  very  jaws 
of  death.  He  seldom  has  occasion  to  adminis- 
ter a  rebuke.  An  order  of  his  when  once  under- 
stood he  is  never  compelled  to  repeat,  but  has 
the  pleasure  of  seeing  it  executed  with  the  ut- 
most alacrity." 


THE  TENTED  FIELD. 


A  N  ordinary  history  of  the  late  war  is  replete 
•^^  with  information  concerning  the  move- 
ments and  operations  of  armies,  as  supplied  by' 
corps,  division  and  brigade  commanders;  but 
how  little  is  written  from  the  standpoint  of  the 
subordinate  officer,  or  the  private  !  George's 
letters  are  valuable  and  instructive  in  this  par- 
ticular, as  a  relation  not  only  of  the  daily  occur- 
rences and  the  minutiic  of  camp  life  which  en- 
gross the  attention  of  the  humble  soldier,  but 
also  as  presenting  views  of  the  military  situation 
as  he  sees  it. 

In  the  following  interesting  communications 
are  presented  further  pen  pictures  of  life  on  the 
tented  field  : 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  67 

CAMP  MAXWELL,  VA.,  August  4th,  1861. 
To  the  Editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald: 

My  letters,  you  will  observe,  like  everything 
else  pertaining  to  camp,  are  very  irregular. 
Food  in  camp  is  irregular  with  a  moving  regi- 
ment, both  as  regards  quantity  and  quality. 
Sometimes,  when  shifting  our  position,  we  have 
long  fasts,  which  are  not  particularly  conducive 
to  a  prayerful  mood  ;  at  other  times,  potatoes, 
peaches,  chickens,  onions,  beets,  etc.,  mysteri- 
ously appear  and  disappear  around  the  camp 
fires.  "A  moment  seen,  then  gone  forever." 
We  do  not,  as  a  regiment,  generally  make  a 
practice  of  foraging ;  but  then,  if  we  did  not  do 
it  a  little,  Kerrigan's  regiment,  which  is  near  us, 
would  get  more  than  their  "  rations."  Cattle 
are  very  rarely  disturbed,  though,  it  is  true, 
horses  are  occasionally  impressed  into  the  ser- 
vice of  their  country,  while  a  misanthropic  mule 
may  sometimes  be  seen  sedately  carrying  two 
or  three  volunteers  around  on  his  back.  Sleep- 
ing is  also  irregular,  and  in  all  sorts  of  places, 
from  the  finest  of  bedrooms  down  to  the  open 
air,  in  a  rain,  with  the  boots  of  a  neighbor  for  a 
pillow.  Tents  are  fine  apartments  though,  ex- 
cept during  a  heavy  rain,  when  the  ground  floor 
is  apt  to  be  quite  damp,  especially  if  on  a  low, 
marshy  spot. 


68  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

Since  I  wrote  last  we  have  been  newly  uni- 
formed, and  have  laid  aside  the  old  colorless 
clothes  which  the  men  have  so  long  worn  under 
protest.  Of  course  this  gave  an  entirely  new 
appearance  to  the  regiment,  which  looked  as  if 
it  had  just  been  "shedding."  One  fellow,  much 
fatigued  after  a  long  march,  awoke  from  a  long 
sleep  that  afternoon  and  saw  what  seemed  a  lot 
of  strangers  about.  Loquitur,  rubbing  his  eyes, 
"  Wh-what  regiment's  this?  Where's  the  Twen- 
ty-sixth ?  Did  you  see  which  way  they  went?" 
We  were  inspected  by  a  regular  officer  last  Fri- 
day, who  is  going  through  all  the  regiments 
along  the  river. 

The  greatest  confidence  is  felt  in  all  quarters 
in  the  ability  and  tact  of  General  McClellan,  and 
his  untiring  activity  imparts  a  vigor  to  every 
department  of  the  army.  The  forests  are  still 
being  levelled,  entrenchments  thrown  up  and 
batteries  erected.  The  Northern  "mud  sills" 
are  making  havoc  in  the  "  sacred  soil  "  generally, 
enough,  at  least,  to  embitter  the  feelings  of  even 
that  part  of  "  the  chivalry  "  who  were  the  best 
inclined  towards  the  North.  I  think  the  ideas 
of  the  Northern  press  with  reference  to  South- 
ern sentiment  are  very  erroneous.  Around  here 
the  inhabitants  seem  to  be  all  secessionists,  but  of 
course  they  are  not  forward  in  ventilating  their 
politics,  especially  when  they  are  certain  that 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  69 

it  will  tell  upon  their  hen-roosts  and  orchards. 
A  young  farmer  boy  can  scarcely  be  found  any- 
where around  here ;  all,  as  I  suppose,  being  off 
with  the  army.  The  rebel  army  is  made  of  good 
material.  The  Black  Horse  Cavalry,  especially, 
were  made  up  almost  wholly  of  men  of  culture 
and  fortune,  and  I've  heard  the  greatest  mortifi- 
cation expressed  by  Virginians  that  they  should 
have  been  cut  to  pieces  by  the  New  York  Fire- 
men—the aristocracy  by  the  sans  culottes.  These 
Zouaves,  by  the  way,  are  the  "  lions  "  among  the 
troops  about  here.  Their  officers  are  all  either 
dead  or  good  for  nothing,  and  they  warm  all 
over  recounting  their  adventures  and  showing 
their  trophies  from  the  Bull  Run  battle.  The 
Zouaves,  Kerrigan's,  the  Mozart,  McCunn's,  Mc- 
Leod  Murphy's  and  Lansing's  are  the  regiments 
whose  camps  are  nearest  our  own. 

Mr.  Owen  J.  Lewis  of  your  city  was  visiting 
through  our  camp  yesterday,  surrounded,  as 
you  may  well  imagine,  by  crowds  of  old  ac- 
quaintances asking  for  news  from  Utica.  A 
man  in  civilian's  dress  is  quite  a  curiosity  now, 
and  we  stare  at  him  with  as  much  interest  as 
we  used  to  have  in  a  military  company,  when  we 
delighted  to  follow  them  barefooted  through 
the  streets  for  miles,  to  the  great  disgust  of  all 
school  teachers.  Mr.  Lewis  started  this  morn- 
ing on  a  trip  to  Fortress  Monroe. 


70  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

Colonel  Kerrigan  was  heard  to  pay  Colonel 
Christian  and  our  regiment  quite  a  compliment 
the  other  day.  He  remarked  that  it  was  the 
best-drilled  volunteer  regiment  he  had  yet  seen. 

It  is  now  Sunday  night ;  warm,  oh,  how  warm, 
but  beautiful  !  Grim-looking  war  ships  are 
lying  silently  in  the  river  between  here  and 
Washington.  The  Chaplain  is  holding  religious 
services  at  one  end  of  the  camp,  with  the  band 
putting  in  "  Old  Hundred  "  and  "  Coronation  " 
occasionally.  From  another  part  may  be  heard 
soldiers  chanting  "  Dixie,"  celebrating  the  virtues 
of  the  "  Female  Smuggler,"  or  bewailing  the  un- 
timely death  of  "  Gentle  Annie."  It  is  half-past 
nine,  and  time  that  these  noises  stopped — also  it's 
time  my  light  was  put  out.  ALIQUIS. 

There  was  what  was  called  the  "  three  months 
trouble  "  about  this  time.  Men  who  had  enlist- 
ed for  three  months  and  their  time  expiring, 
insisted  upon  going  home  and  refused  to  do 
duty,  for  which  cause  there  were  several  arrests. 
They  were  assured  that  as  recruiting  progressed 
those  anxious  to  go  home  might  do  so,  but  the 
necessity  for  their  services  was  imperative  for 
the  time  being,  and  they  wert  required  by  the 
Government  to  report  for  duty  to  the  Adjutant- 
General  of  the  United  States  Army  at  the  ex- 
piration of  their  term  of  service. 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  71 

A  little  later  the  Colonel  of  the  Twenty-sixth 
New  York  Regiment  called  about  him  his  officers 
and  stated  that  he  desired  none  to  remain  ex- 
cept such  as  were  prepared  to  serve  the  full  two 
years.  Upon  this  fourteen  officers  tendered 
their  resignations,  which  were  at  once  accepted 
and  their  successors  from  among  those  who 
were  "  in  for  the  war  "  selected. 

The  next  letter  is  from  Camp  Maxwell, 
Virginia,  under  date  of  August  yth,  1861: 

To  the  Editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald : 

We  were  aroused  again  last  night  by  two 
couriers  from  General  McClellan,  who  ordered 
us  to  assemble,  with  the  rest  of  the  brigade,  im- 
mediately along  the  Leesburg  road.  This  was 
a  little  after  midnight,  and  we  lay  out  until 
morning,  but  got  into  no  engagement.  We 
could  hear  the  rumbling  of  their  artillery 
wagons,  however,  and  it  is  known  that  some  part 
of  the  rebel  army  is  not  far  distant.  These  in- 
fantry regiments  in  an  alarm  in  the  night  turn 
out  very  quietly,  and,  as  they  have  no  lights,  a 
person  might  be  not  more  than  fifty  yards  from 
the  camp  and  not  know  that  a  man  was  astir. 
If  we  are  attacked  here  a  battery  will  be  sent 
across  to  Washington,  in  apprehension,  I  sup- 
pose, of  feigned  attacks.  This  lying  out  in  case 


72  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH., 

of  alarm  is  what  the  boys  call  "going  out  to 
pasture,"  and  it  isn't  very  pleasing  when  they 
are  obliged  to  sleep  in  the  wet  grass  all  night, 
and  then  return  to  camp  in  the  morning  without 
any  engagement. 

The  following  order  was  read  on  parade,  last 
evening,  by  the  Colonel : 

His  Excellency,  the  President  of  the  United  States,  de- 
siring the  further  service  of  the  Twenty-Sixth  Regiment, 
New  York  State  Volunteers,  and  having  made  requisi- 
tion upon  the  Governor  of  this  State,  therefore,  Colonel 
Christian  is  hereby  directed,  on  the  expiration  of  the 
term  for  which  such  regiment  was  mustered  into  the 
service  of  the  United  States,  (August  2ist,  1861),  to 
report  with  his  command  to  the  Adjutant-General  of 
the  United  States  Army,  for  duty  under  the  order  of 
the  United  States  Government  for  the  remainder  of  the 
term  of  enlistment  of  the  regiment  into  the  service  of  the 
State  of  New  York. 

By  order  of  the  Commander-in-Chief, 

D.  CAMPBELL, 
Assistant  Adjutant-General. 

This  occasions  a  great  deal  of  disappointment 
among  the  men,  many  of  whom  had  made 
arrangements  to  go  to  their  homes  after  the 
twenty-first  of  August.  The  Colonel,  however, 
says  that  as  recruiting  progresses  those  very 
anxious  to  go  home  may  gradually  all  get  a  dis- 
charge, as  he  will  use  his  exertions  for  that  ob- 
ject at  the  War  Department.  He  believes  that 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  AEROWSMITH.  73 

the  war  at  most  will  not  last  a  year,  and  is 
determined  himself  at  all  events  to  see  its  close 
in  the  service. 

The  following  changes  have  occurred  in  the 
officer  roll  of  the  Twenty-Sixth  Regiment,  and 
we  much  regret  that  those  resigned  now  are 
leaving  us.  The  appointments,  which  have  been 
made  from  among  the  most  trustworthy  and  re- 
liable men  in  the  regiment,  have  been  confirmed 
by  Governor  Morgan,  and  the  new  officers  will 
enter  upon  the  discharge  of  their  duties  imme- 
diately. The  resignations  were  assented  to  by 
General  McDowell,  and  the  officers  resigning  dis- 
charged from  the  service  of  the  United  States  : 

William  K.  Bacon,  Adjutant,  vice  David 
Smith,  Jr.,  resigned. 

Ensign  Gilbert  A.  Hay,  Lieutenant  of  Com- 
pany A,  vice  William  A.  Mercer,  resigned. 

Sergeant-Major  John  T.  Kingsbury,  Ensign  of 
Company  A,  vice  Hay,  promoted. 

Lieutenant  Norman  W.  Palmer,  Captain  of 
Company  E,  vice  Antoine  Brendle,  resigned. 

Ensign  H.  D.  Barnett,  Lieutenant  of  Company 
B,  vice  Norman  W.  Palmer,  promoted. 

Sergeant  William  J.  Harlow,  Ensign  of  Com- 
pany B,  vice  Barnett,  promoted. 

Sergeant  William  C.  Gardner,  Lieutenant  of 
Company  D,  vice  William  P.  West,  promoted. 

Lieutenant   E.  R.  P.  Shurly,   of  Company   G, 


74  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

Captain  of  Company  C,  vice  John  H.  Fairbanks, 
resigned. 

Sergeant  Hugh  Leonard,  Ensign  of  Company 

D,  vice  Richard  Hall,  resigned. 

Sergeant  Charles  B.  Coventry,  Lieutenant  of 
Company  E,  vice  Oliver  W.  Sheldon,  resigned. 
Corporal  Charles  Smith,  Ensign  of    Company 

E,  vice  James  VanVleck,  resigned. 

Corporal  William  Cone,  Lieutenant   of    Com- 
pany F,  vice  Rufus  D.  Patten,  resigned. 

Private  John  Williams,  Ensign  of  Company  F, 
vice  John  Bevine,  resigned. 

Ensign  Frank  L.  Binder,  Lieutenant  of    Com- 
pany G,  vice  E.  R.  P.  Shurly,  promoted. 

Frank     Lee,    Ensign     of     Company    G,    vice 
Binder,  promoted. 

Lieutenant  William  P.  West,  Captain  of  Com- 
pany I,  vice  John  H.  Palmer,  resigned. 

Corporal    Alonzo    Thompson,    Lieutenant    of 
Company  I,  vice  Henry  J.  Flint,  resigned. 

Charles    S.    Johnson,    Ensign  of    Company  I, 
vice  John  W.  Kinney,  resigned. 

Ensign   Emmet   Harder,  Lieutenant  of   Com- 
pany K,  vice  Charles  F.  Baragar,  resigned. 

Sergeant  Albert   D.    Lynch,   Ensign  of  Com- 
pany K,  vice  Harder,  promoted. 

ALIQUIS. 

(The  officers  as  above  appointed   have   been 
duly  commissioned  by  Governor  Morgan.) 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.        75 

August  i8th,  1861,  we  find  the  Twenty-sixth 
at  Alexandria  again,  and  Aliquis  writes  as  fol- 
lows : 

ALEXANDRIA,  August  i8th,  1861. 

To  the  Editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald : 

We  have  again  moved  our  camp,  in  order  to 
join  the  brigade  to  which  we  have  been  annexed 
— General  Heintzelman's.  We  have  thus  lost 
the  beautiful  grounds  and  the  splendid  scenery 
of  our  former  location  ;  but  we  are  glad  to  find 
ourselves  in  a  brigade  where  affairs  will  be  con- 
ducted with  more  system.  This  moving  a  regi- 
ment after  it  gets  well  settled  down,  is  a  great 
nuisance,  and  makes  much  confusion  for  a  short 
time.  If  we  only  had  some  women  to  scold  the 
teamsters,  it  would  be  as  good  as  an  ordinary 
May  Day.  The  army  drivers  use  only  one  line 
to  their  four  horses,  and  this  occasions  the  use 
of  quite  a  variety  of  terms  to  their  horses,  which 
increases  to  a  most  hideous  jargon  whenever 
about  a  dozen  teamsters  get  tangled  up  in  a 
stumpy  field.  All  the  camp  articles  are  thrown 
into  these  large  wagons  in  beautiful  confusion. 
Through  the  opening  in  the  rear  of  the  wagons 
may  be  seen  a  musket,  a  man's  leg,  a  knapsack 
and  a  camp  pail.  Two  -men  march  with  each 
wagon  to  guard  it,  and  away  they  go,  the  regi- 
ment just  ahead  of  them.  Well,  when  we  get 


76  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

to  the  new  ground,  the  wagons  are  unloaded  in 
the  rain,  (for  it  is  always  as  sure  to  rain  when 
we  •'  move  "  as  it  is  when  a  Sabbath-school  gets 
up  a  picnic) — then  the  companies  go  to  work 
putting  up  their  tents,  and  after  the  usual 
amount  of  shouting  and  quarrelling,  things 
finally  settle  down  into  the  old  order.  Enter- 
prising men  then  make  a  variety  of  fire-places 
in  the  ground,  into  which  some  very  luxurious 
individual  may  place  a  joint  of  stove  pipe.  Per- 
haps the  same  pampered  person  that  revels  amid 
these  conveniences  may  get  some  boards  off 
from  a  fence  and  put  a  floor  in  his  tent  to  sleep 
upon  ;  but  most  of  us  live  like  plain  volunteers. 
I  suppose  it  is  very  novel  and  pleasant  around 
in  York  state  for  your  military  companies  to 
"  camp  out "  about  a  week  in  nice  weather,  with 
buffalo  robes  and  champagne,  and  stand  guard, 
watching  in  great  suspicion  for  the  approach 
of  an  enemy  from  a  neighboring  corn  field. 
But  "camping  out"  loses  its  novelty  after  a 
few  months,  and  standing  guard  becomes  a 
stern  reality  when  it  is  known  that  Jackson's 
brothers  can't  be  broken  of  their  very  impolite 
habit  of  shooting  our  pickets.  Every  one  of 
these  volunteers  whom  the  Northern  citizens 
encouraged  to  go  to  war  for  their  country,  and 
whom  you  cheered  and  told  to  shoot  Jeff  Davis, 
and  whom  you  gave  five  dollars  and  advised 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARKOWSMITH.  77 

not  to  get  killed,  ole  feller — though  they  never 
get  into  a  pitched  battle,  are  nevertheless  enti- 
tled to  great  credit  for  the  instances  of  self- 
denial  in  their  lives  as  soldiers.  The  volunteers 
are  now  the  only  force  the  country  can  rely 
upon.  The  regular  army  is  now  only  a  fossil 
relic  of  something  that  once  was  of  some  im- 
portance. Now  it  is  only  of  use  as  a  police 
force,  for  which  it  is  usually  employed.  Colonel 
Christian  had  occasion  the  other  day  to  ex- 
press nearly  these  same  opinions  to  a  regular 
captain,  and  he  "owned  the  corn,"  expressing 
his  preference  for  the  volunteers.  Strange  to 
say,  political  favoritism  is  exhibited  as  much 
as  ever  in  the  army  appointments.  Young  sons 
of  rich  politicians,  who  bid  fair  to  be  good 
for  nothing  else,  can  usually  be  lieutenants  in 
the  army.  In  the  style  of  fighting  which  this 
war  brings  out,  men  will  have  to  act  as  indi- 
viduals very  often  with  the  lines  broken,  and 
the  personal  identity  of  the  men  ought  not  to 
be  swallowed  up  in  the  regiment,  as  is  too  much 
the  result  of  the  intellect-deadening  drill  in  the 
regular  army.  Hurrah  for  the  volunteer  ! 

Our  brigade  is  composed  of  four  regiments, 
the  Sixteenth,  Twenty-sixth  and  Twenty-seventh 
New  York,  and  the  Fifth  Maine.  General 
Heintzleman  is  quite  unwell,  and  is  at  Washing- 
ton, while  Colonel  Davis  is  at  present  in  com- 


78  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

mand.  Colonel  Christian  is  the  second  in  rank. 
Our  situation  is  to  the  extreme  south  of  the 
Army  of  the  Potomac,  and  our  pickets  extend 
nearly  down  to  Mount  Vernon.  The  regiments 
in  the  brigade  take  turns  sending  out  pickets, 
and  the  companies  in  the  regiment  take  turns 
going.  Three  of  our  companies  have  gone  out 
to-day  with  two  field  pieces.  Before  we  left  our 
old  camp  our  pickets  out  by  Bailey's  Cross 
Roads  had  a  sort  of  skirmish  with  some  rebel 
horsemen.  We  lost  no  men,  but  as  near  as  we 
could  learn  from  the  inhabitants  around  there, 
and  what  our  men  themselves  saw,  six  of  the 
enemy  were  unhorsed.  I  met  an  old  school- 
mate at  the  Provost  Marshal's,  the  other  day, 
under  arrest  as  a  spy.  He  was  very  glad  to  see 
me,  and  in  talking  over  old  times  we  forgot 
that  it  was  our  duy  to  cut  each  other's  throats. 
His  name  is  John  Bradley ;  he  lives  in  Alex- 
andria, and  is  a  secessionist.  "  Sich  is  life." 

ALIQUIS. 


DESTRUCTION  OF  A  BRIDGE. 

/CAPTAIN  ARROWSMITH  and  his  company 
V*1  acting  under  orders  take  an  active  part  in 
the  destruction  of  the  bridge  over  Hunting  Run 
to  prevent  its  use  by  the  enemy  and  the  capture 
of  Alexandria.  A  description  of  this  affair  is 
contained  in  a  communication  to  the  Utica  Herald 
from  Alexandria  under  date  of  August  i8th,  1861, 
but  not  from  the  pen  of  Aliquis,  as  follows  : 

HEADQUARTERS  26TH  N.  Y.  VOLUNTEERS,  ) 
ALEXANDRIA,  VA.,  August  i8th.      \ 

To  the  Editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald: 

A  brief  description  of  two  nights'  duty  and  the 
destruction  of  the  bridge  over  Hunting  Run 
will  no  doubt  be  interesting  to  you. 

OUR    SITUATION. 

A  mile  or  two  below  Alexandria  a  great  bay 


80         LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

sets  back  from  the  Potomac  into  the  western 
shore  ;  on  the  north  it  bends  around  a  promon- 
tory until  it  edges  upon  the  suburbs  of  the  city, 
while  upon  the  south  are  high  and  wooded  lands, 
threaded  by  a  score  of  roads  leading  to  the 
enemy's  camp  only  a  few  miles  distant.  The 
Mount  Vernon  road  which  crosses  this  important 
bridge  intersects  all  these  roads. 

The  bridge  was  nearly  half  a  mile  in  length, 
consisting  of  a  causeway  from  either  shore  sev- 
eral rods  in  length,  connected  by  a  substantial 
oaken  structure,  and  crossed  the  Run  about  one 
mile  from  the  Potomac. 

A  sluggish  stream  winds  through  the  meadows 
at  the  base  of  the  hills,  emptying  into  the  Run 
about  two  miles  from  the  river.  This  stream 
and  the  Run  are  known  as  "Hunting  Run." 
They  form  the  dividing  line  of  the  two  great 
armies  on  the  south  of  our  position. 

The  camps  of  the  Sixteenth,  Twenty-sixth  and 
Twenty-seventh  New  York  Volunteers  and  Fifth 
Maine,  are  located  in  the  meadow,  just  upon  the 
northern  edge  of  these  waters. 

ONE  NIGHT'S  DUTY. 

Last  Sunday  the  Colonel  sent  three  companies 
across  the  bridge,  conducted  by  Captains  Jen- 
nings, West  and  Blackwell  ;  these  companies 
separated  on  the  opposite  side,  each  taking 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  81 

different  roads,  and  proceeding  from  four  to  six 
miles  toward  the  enemy,  threw  out  their  pickets 
and  remained  till  next  morning. 

About  two  o'clock  in  the  morning  they  faintly 
heard  voices  apparently  giving  commands  in 
the  distance.  Captain  Jennings  cautiously  ap- 
proached a  mile  beyond,  and  plainly  heard  the 
deadened  tramp  of  a  large  column  of  infantry. 

It  was  late  in  the  day  of  Monday  when  the 
companies  came  back  to  camp.  The  Colonel, 
upon  hearing  their  report,  immediately  mounted 
his  horse  and,  accompanied  by"  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Richardson  and  Major  Jennings,  went 
to  the  bridge,  and  to  their  surprise  found  it 
guarded  by  only  nine  men  of  the  Twenty-seventh 
New  York  Regiment.  Proceeding  to  the  head- 
quarters of  General  Franklin,  Colonel  Christian 
reported  the  case,  and  asked  permission  to  be- 
come responsible  for  the  security  of  the  road 
against  any  approach  of  the  enemy ;  for  this 
duty  it  was  determined  to  send  a  company. 

A    NIGHT    IN    THE    RAIN. 

Captain  Arrowsmith,  upon  his  request,  was 
assigned  this  duty.  Adjutant  Bacon  also  ac- 
companied them  as  a  volunteer.  The  night  was 
one  of  the  most  dismal  I  ever  saw  ;  the  rain  fell 
in  torrents.  The  men  were  obliged  to  stand 
along  the  bridge,  exposed  to  the  full  vigor  of 


82  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

the  storm — while  the  fearless  Captain  and  our 
promising  young  Adjutant  occasionally  crossed 
toward  the  hills  and  listened  for  an  expected 
approach.  Red  and  yellow  rockets  were  re- 
peatedly thrown  from  the  camps  of  the  enemy, 
which  marked  a  chain  of  regiments  from  the 
river  for  several  miles  towards  Manassas.  In 
the  morning  the  company  returned  to  camp, 
and,  notwithstanding  their  sleepless  night,  as 
usual  went  through  the  duties  of  the  day. 

THE    DESTRUCTION    OF    THE    BRIDGE. 

In  the  edge  of  last  evening,  by  invitation  of 
Col6nel  Christian,  I  accompanied  him  for  the 
first  time  to  the  bridge.  We  then  called  on 
Colonel  Davies  (at  present  commanding  this 
Brigade),  to  whom  the  Colonel  plainly  stated 
the  negligence  in  allowing  the  bridge  to  remain 
— how  easily  with  a  howitzer  the  enemy  could 
sweep  our  infantry  from  it — and  remarked  that 
we  were  carrying  on  the  war  as  though  we 
would  not  inconvenience  the  enemy,  injure  his 
property,  or  hurt  any  of  them,  and  proposed 
that  we  take  the  responsibility  of  destroying  the 
bridge.  The  Colonel's  assent  being  given,  two 
companies,  one  of  the  Twenty-sixth  and  the 
other  of  the  Twenty-seventh,  proceeded  to  the 
work,  and  this  morning  saw  but  a  few  forlorn 
timbers  where  yesterday  stood  a  noble  structure. 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  83 

Thus  war  compels  the  destruction  in  a  day  of 
many  works  which  have  cost  months  of  labor  ; 
but  in  destroying  this  bridge  we  cut  off  6ne  of 
the  most  feasible  approaches  of  the  enemy  upon 
Alexandria. 

Adjutant  William  Kirkland  Bacon  referred  to 
in  the  above  letter  was  a  warm  friend  of  Captain 
Arrowsmith.  He  was  only  nineteen  years  of 
age,  and  had  left  Hamilton  College  to  enroll 
himself  as  a  private  in  defence  of  his  country. 
He  is  described  as  the  soul  of  honor  and  pos- 
sessed of  an  unsullied  personal  purity.  He  dis- 
tinguished himself  by  his  bravery  upon  a  num- 
ber of  battle-fields,  receiving  a  grievous  wound 
at  Manassas,  and  falling  mortally  wounded  at 
the  battle  of  Fredericksburgh. 

In  a  private  letter  to  his  parents,  Adjutant 
Bacon  writes  concerning  the  guarding  of  the 
bridge  over  Hunting  Run  where  he  served  with 
Captain  Arrowsmith  as  follows  : 

"  Four  or  five  days  ago  I  accompanied  Captain 
Arrowsmith,  with  part  of  his  men  and  a  number 
from  Company  C,  in  charge  of  Ensign  Neill,  to 
guard  a  bridge  which  crosses  Hunting  Run  and 
connects  Alexandria  with  the  Mount  Vernon 
road.  The  night  was  dark  and  stormy,  and  the 
rain  fell  in  torrents.  Before  morning  I  was 


84  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

drenched  to  the  skin,  and  my  comrades  fared  no 
better.  My  revolver  and  sword  became  wet, 
and  the  next  day  were  so  rusty  that  it  took 
several  hours  to  clean  them.  I  do  not  think  the 
Captain  and  myself,  who  are  quite  intimate 
friends,  thought  very  much  at  the  time  of  the 
importance  of  the  mission  on  which  we  were 
sent.  We  sat  together,  and  talked  about  all  the 
old  times  at  home,  and  contrasted  our  condition 
at  the  time  with  the  pleasant,  cheerful  firesides 
there,  where  we  could  easily  enjoy  the  greatest 
comfort  and  luxury  in  the  world.  How  foolish, 
we  thought,  would  we  be  considered  if  we  should 
even  run  out  for  a  few  moments  in  the  rain  at 
home.  Here,  however,  we  were  doing  what  was 
rendering  our  country  some  little  service.  If 
the  secessionists  had  obtained  possession  of  the 
bridge,  they  could  have  taken  Alexandria  with- 
out a  blow,  and,  it  might  be,  have  caused  another 
such  disastrous  rout  as  that  at  Bull's  Run.  We 
had  really  the  distinguished  honor  of  volunteer- 
ing to  protect  (with  our  lives  if  need  be)  one  of 
the  most  important  outposts  of  the  Federal 
army.  When  one  sees  how  much  the  country 
needs  his  services  at  this  crisis,  can  he,  with 
any  degree  of  self-satisfaction,  consent  to  return 
home,  however  much  he  would  love  to  see  once 
more  those  whom  he  has  left  behind  ?  For  my 
own  part,  sooner  than  leave  the  service  of  my 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  85 

country,  to  which  I  am  indebted  for  the  bless- 
ings of  freedom  and  almost  unbounded  liberty, 
I  would  consent  to  die  the  worst  of  deaths.  Our 
country  is  now  passing  through  a  most  terribly 
trying  ordeal,  but  I  hope  she  will  come  out  puri- 
fied by  the  test.  God  is  on  our  side,  and  with 
His  help  we  will  forever  crush  out  the  hydra- 
headed  monster  of  secession;  and,  I  hope,  settle, 
once  and  for  all,  the  question — so  often  agitated 
— of  slavery. 

"  We  will  probably  remain  here  for  about  a 
month  longer,  and  then  advance  towards  Manas- 
sas.  The  great  army,  thousands  of  which  are 
now  pouring  into  Washington  daily,  will  soon 
be  ready  to  take  the  places  of  the  regiments 
now  stationed  here  and  all  along  this  side  of  the 
Potomac.  It  may  be  that  the  rebels,  anticipat- 
ing our  advance,  will  make  a  counter  movement, 
and  attempt  to  force  our  lines  back  upon  Wash- 
ington, or  further  if  possible.  This,  however,  I 
do  not  think  will  be  done,  for,  if  accounts  are 
true,  the  rebel  army  is  in  a  far  worse  state 
of  demoralization  than  ours.  The  payment  of 
troops  in  scrip  and  corporation  currency — such 
as  we  used  to  call  '  shinplasters  ' — must  be  suf- 
ficient of  itself  to  cause  complaint  and  dissatis- 
faction. It  is  said,  too,  that  as  the  Confederate 
election  must  soon  take  place,  Davis,  Lee  and 
Beauregard  are  at  '  sword's  points.'  This  would 


86  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  AREOWSMITH. 

not    be   very  unnatural,  for  three  men  as    am- 
bitious as  they  are  never  pull  well  together." 

The  following  extract  is  from  a  letter  of 
George  to  his  father,  dated  September  ist,  1861, 
from  Alexandria,  Camp  Vernon,  expressing  his 
desire  not  to  miss  any  work  : 

"This  brigade  is  the  extreme  left  of  the  army 
here.  I'm  picketing  and  scouting  and  have  been 
down  on  the  Washington  estates  and  in  view  of 
Mount  Vernon. 

"  It  seems  to  me  that  summer  has  passed  very 
quickly;  to-day,  is  the  first  of  autumn.  What 
fighting  there  is  to  be  done  will  have  to  be  done 
up  before  January  I  suppose.  If  we  go  into 
winter  quarters  then  I'll  come  home  on  furlough 
right  away,  but  at  present  I'm  afraid  that  I'd 
just, miss  all  the  work  if  I  should  leave  now. 
We  are  daily  expecting  an  engagement  and  we 
are  confident  as  to  the  result.  We  see  balloons, 
rockets  and  fires  in  the  rebel  camp  nearly  every 
night.  I  went  the  other  night  so  near  them 
with  some  pickets  that  we  beat  up  a  '  long  roll ' 
in  their  camp  which  we  could  hear  distinctly. 

"I'm  now  'color  captain,'  that  is,  occupy  the 
position  in  line  just  to  the  right  of  the  centre. 
I  am  well  and  hard  at  work." 


A  DESCRIPTION  OF  ALEXANDRIA. 


"  I  ^HE  following  bright  letter  contains  among 
other  things  a  flash-light  picture  of  Alex- 
andria : 

ALEXANDRIA,  VA.,  September  3d,  1861. 
To  the  Editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald : 

Alexandria  is  an  old-looking  town  to  a  North- 
erner. An  old-looking  place  it  is,  and  in  this 
the  Virginians  take  great  pride,  and  they  speak 
of  the  reputation  it  had  as  a  shipping  port  in 
the  Revolution.  There  is  the  old  engine  house 
of  the  Friendship  Company,  to  which  one 
George  Washington,  of  Mount  Vernon,  once  be- 
longed. Here  is  the  road  along  which  Braddock 
proceeded  on  his  ill-fated  expedition.  But  one 
needs  some  such  recollections  to  divert  his  at- 
tention, for  it  abounds  in  unpleasant  odors  of 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

all  descriptions.  Every  corner  we  turn  there 
appears  to  be  a  new  smell,  and  even  the  drug 
stores  present  their  unfavorable  side  to  the  pas- 
senger. There  is  only  one  thing  worse  in  Alex- 
andria than  its  odor,  and  that  is  its  pavements. 
If  a  new  geographer  should  come  on  its  streets, 
and  not  know  it  was  intentionally  paved,  he 
would  term  it  a  "very  rough  and  rocky  region, 
and  only  visited  by  travelers  with  great  risks." 
But  Alexandria  was  really  paved,  a  part  of  it 
during  the  Revolutionary  War,  and  there  have 
been  no  essential  repairs  since.  It  is,  however, 
called  by  the  natives  "  a  right  smart  chance  of  a 
town."  It  abounds  in  negroes,  drug  stores, 
confectioneries,  mosquitoes,  and  at  present,  sol- 
diers. The  military  police  seem  as  omnipresent, 
I  suppose,  as  those  of  Paris — ferreting  out  spies, 
searching  buildings  for  concealed  arms,  arrest- 
ing disorderly  soldiers,  and  confining  gentlemen 
who  venture  around  too  much  without  a  pass, 
sending  them  to  the  Provost  Marshal's,  very 
red  and  indignant,  between  two  muskets.  The 
"slave  pen,"  once  the  scene  of  the  liveliest  trade 
in  Alexandria,  is  now  used  as  a  military  prison. 
Courts  Martial  are  now  a  fixed  institution  in  the 
town,  and  it  is  very  interesting  to  attend  them 
and  witness  the  examination  of  suspected  citi- 
zens, spies,  and  deserters.  The  Seventeenth 
New  York  Regiment  is  now  occupying  and 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  89 

guarding  the  town;  Fort  Ellsworth,  which  they 
formerly  held,  being  now  manned  by  a  strong 
body  of  sailors. 

Out  by  Bailey's  Cross  Roads,  both  armies  are 
at  work  night  and  day,  throwing  up  intrench- 
ments  right  in  sight  of  each  other.  Over  a 
thousand  men  on  each  side  are  continually 
wielding  the  pickaxe  and  spade,  preparing,  I 
suppose,  for  a  battle  near  Washington,  which  is 
inevitably  to  decide  the  contest.  There  is  occa- 
sionally a  shot  exchanged  just  by  way  of  recog- 
nition to  officers  who  visit  the  works  on  horse- 
back. Colonel  Christian,  accompanied  by  other 
officers,  frequently  rides  out"  to  view  the  progress 
of  the  intrenchments. 

Big  time  among  the  boys  yesterday.  Found 
three  "feminine"  ambrotypes  in  the  bottom  of 
a  box  of  clothing  that  had  never  before  been 
overhauled  ;  startling  effect  upon  the  personal 
appearance  of  the  troops  from  these  ambrotypes  ; 
thanks  to  the  fair  unknown  who  have  furnished 
these  "three  episodes,"  as  Ward  would  call 
them. 

Our  regiment  now  have  the  black  army  hats 
of  the  style  of  the  seventeenth  century,  with 
plumes  and  ornaments.  If  the  men  were  only 
waist  deep  in  the  water,  they  would  pass  very 
well  for  the  "  Landing  of  the  Pilgrims."  The 
volunteer  force  is  gradually  becoming  uniform 


90  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

in  its  dress,  a  thing  which  the  Bull  Run  experi- 
ence shows  to  be  most  desirable. 

I  have  been  much  disappointed  with  the  cli- 
mate of  Virginia.  For  the  last  three  weeks  there 
has  been  but  little  warm  weather,  and  the  nights 
are  indeed  quite  cold.  Those  who  came  South 
illy  provided  with  clothing  have  made  a  great 
mistake,  and  it  is  probably  these  deluded  per- 
sons that  we  hear  practising  "double  quick  "  up 
and  down  the  company  streets  towards  morning. 

The  two  years'  excitement  has  all  subsided, 
and  the  daily  expectation  of  a  battle  absorbs 
everything  else.  "  Give  us  something  to  do," 
the  men  say,  "  and  we  will  stay  cheerfully  as 
long  as  necessary."  There  is  every  probability 
that  the  old  regiments  will  have  something  to 
do  in  the  autumn  campaign,  for  it  will  doubtless 
be  the  policy  of  the  General  to  leave  the  lately 
formed  regiments  to  protect  Washington.  You 
may  rest  assured  that  this  regiment  is  none  the 
less  eager  for  service,  and  no  less  patriotic  on 
account  of  the  crisis  through  which  this,  in  com- 
mon with  many  others,  has  passed.  Leave  a 
wide  margin  for  exaggeration  in  estimating  the 
reliability  of  news  from  Washington,  for  it  is 
verily  a  city  of  sensations.  We  are  really 
obliged  to  look  in  the  New  York  papers  to  get 
the  news  from  the  army,  and  in  fact,  they  get  up 
incidents  so  much  better,  and  tell  of  feats  so 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  91 

much  more  gallant  and  escapes  so  much  more 
miraculous  than  we  hear  of  here,  that  it  is  very 
pleasant  to  get  information  through  that  channel. 
I  heard  it  rumored  last  night  that  General  Mc- 
Dowell was  arrested  for  treason. 

ALIQUIS. 

A  reason  for  the  inactivity  complained  of  in 
the  last  letter  was  the  fact  that  the  Twenty-sixth 
Regiment  was  too  well  disciplined  to  be  spared 
from  ^he  force  reserved  for  the  protection  of 
Washington,  though  the  Colonel  and  other 
officers  had  made  strenuous  efforts  to  be  allowed 
to  join  the  advancing  army.  They  were  not 
idle,  however.  They  built  and  occupied  Fort 
Lyon,  then  one  of  the  strongest  fortifications  of 
the  kind  in  Virginia. 


BEAUTIFUL  CAMP  MARY. 


regiment's  camp  is  now  moved  to  a 
more  comfortable  place,  near  the  bank  of 
the  Potomac,  where  Aliquis  discusses  various 
regimental  matters. 

CAMP  MARY,  September  i2th,  1861. 
To  the  Editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald  : 

Again  we  have  moved,  and  this  time  to  a 
beautiful  piece  of  ground  to  which  Colonel 
Christian  has  given  the  name  that  heads  this 
letter.  It  is  over  Hunting  Run,  where  we  have 
moved,  which  carries  us  still  more  to  the  left 
of  the  Grand  Army  of  the  Potomac  —  the  left 
regiment  in  the  left  Brigade.  We  are  now 
under  the  command  of  General  Slocum,  an  offi- 
cer of  whom  we  all  have  the  highest  ideas.  Let- 
ters to  the  regiment,  however,  still  occasionally 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  93 

come  directed  to  Colonel  McCunn  or  General 
Heintzleman's  Brigade,  an  error  which  corre- 
spondents should  take  care  to  correct.  Our 
Brigade  is  to  be  posted  behind  a  line  of  intrench- 
ments,  and  nearly  our  whole  force  is  working 
on  them  every  day;  we  already  have  a  fine  rifle 
pit  in  our  front.  Our  regiment  came  up  yester- 
day afternoon,  and  last  night  was  the  only  one 
on  this  side  of  the  river.  In  the  evening  some 
picket  firing  off  in  front  of  us  kept  us  on  the 
alert  for  a  while  ;  nothing  serious,  however,  oc- 
curred, though  it  is  reported  to-day  that  some 
of  the  Maine  boys  were  captured.  To-day  the 
rest  of  the  Brigade  have  been  moving  up,  to- 
gether with  a  company  of  dragoons,  and  Cap- 
tain Thompson's  battery,  so  that  affairs  now 
look  a  little  more  sociable.  We  now  really  are 
finely  situated,  and  we  have  taken  great  care  to 
make  the  camp  comfortable.  An  unoccupied 
house  near  by  was  taken  down  to  make  floors  to 
the  tents,  the  fences  in  the  neighborhood  being 
rather  defective.  Captain  Palmer  has  charge 
of  a  squad  of  men  daily  employed  in  making  a 
log  building  for  the  convenience  of  the  guard, 
facetiously  called  "  Fort  Palmer."  Yesterday 
afternoon  we  heard  the  skirmish  up  at  the  other 
end  of  the  line,  of  which  you  have  of  course 
heard,  but  reported  fighting  is  now  so  common 
a  topic  that  it  creates  but  little  interest. 


94  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

Picketing  is  a  favorite  duty  with  the  men  and 
officers  of  the  regiment.  There  is  a  most  solemn 
stillness  along  the  roads  that  lead  from  Alex- 
andria down  into  the  country,  and  you  may 
travel  miles  and  see  scarcely  a  living  being,  and 
hear  only  the  chirping  of  insects  or  the  singing 
of  birds.  I  lay  out  all  night  not  long  since,  on 
a  hill  a,t  the  outposts  of  the  Federal  lines.  I 
never  saw  a  more  beautiful  landscape.  As  the 
moon  rose  up  slowly  and  made  the  still  Potomac 
appear  as  a  flare  of  light,  the  stillness  had  a 
drowsy  effect  upon  us  all.  I  lay,  thinking  of  the 
prospect  of  a  fight,  when  five  horsemen,  armed 
to  the  teeth,  suddenly  rode  up  to  my  comrade 
and  myself,  and  ordered  us  to  surrender.  Know- 
ing the  danger  of  grasping  my  musket,  I  did 
not  make  the  attempt,  but  rising  suddenly,  I 
seized  the  leader  by  the  throat — "  Look  here, 
you  thunderin'  fool,  if  you  don't  sleep  a  little 
more  quiet,  you'll  get  punched  in  the  eye  ! "  I'll 
never  forgive  Jim  for  spoiling  that  heroic  dream. 

Mortimer  Thompson,  "  Doesticks,"  has  been 
rusticating  in  our  regiment  for  two  or  three 
weeks,  and  is  an  "  honorary  member "  of  the 
Colonel's  staff.  He  is  continually  scouring  over 
the  country,  going  out  with  the  pickets,  etc.,  and 
seems  to  be  in  love  with  soldiering. 

The  three  months'  question  has  now  "gone 
glimmering  in  the  dream  of  things  that  were," 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  95 

and  the  regiment  is  running  like  clockwork.  I 
am  obliged  to  inform  you  that  no  men  were  shot 
for  insubordination,  at  the  risk,  however,  of 
spoiling  the  effect  of  some  fine  newspaper  para- 
graphs. Our  Adjutant  proves  himself  a  very 
active  and  able  officer,  and  has  become  very 
popular  in  the  regiment.  The  Colonel  and  the 
company  officers  are  continually  in  receipt  of 
letters  from  mothers,  wives  and  fathers  of 
soldiers  soliciting  discharges  and  furloughs  for 
them.  They  seem  to  have  a  sort  of  vague  idea 
that  the  officers  can  just  summarily  send  the 
men  home  in  a  "  Depart,  go  in  peace  "  style.  At 
most,  all  the  Colonel  can  do  is  to  make  applica- 
tion for  the  discharges,  which  he  knows  very 
well  would  never  be  granted,  unless  in  cases  of 
marked  physical  debility.  To  give  every  letter 
received  due  attention,  would  require  the  in- 
dividual efforts  of  every  officer  in  the  regiment, 
for  a  discharge  has  to  be  "  lobbied  "  through 
like  a  bill  in  the  Legislature.  Besides  these  ap- 
plications, there  are  innumerable  applications 
for  officers'  positions.  Young  John  Smith  or 
sofne  one  has  just  got  his  education  ;  his  father 
Mr.  Smith  or  some  one,  a  man  of  high  respect- 
ability, wishes  him  to  fight  for  the  honor  of  his 
country's  flag,  but  at  the  same  time  does  not 
wholly  undervalue  the  "loaves  and  fishes." 
Young  John  is  described  as  not  being  altogether 


96  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

inexperienced  in  military,  having  been  fourth 
corporal  in  the  Tenth  Wide  Awakes,  and  has 
witnessed  several  encampments  of  the  Smithville 
Blues,  therefore  an  application  is  made  that 
Smith  may  have  an  office,  that  eventually  he 
may  become  General  McSmlth  perhaps.  Our 
regiment  has  in  its  non-commissioned  officers 
and  privates  ample  material  for  good  officers, 
and  it  is  really  unjust  to  them  that  strangers' 
claims  should  be  preferred  to  the  claims  of  those 
whose  previous  stations  and  course  of  duty 
render  them  eligible  to  the  positions.  This  is 
the  principle  which  the  Colonel  evidently  aims 
to  observe  in  the  selection  of  his  officers. 

Our  regiment  now  numbers  eight  hundred  and 
thirty  men,  and  some  recruits  we  learn  are  now 
on  their  way  here.  We  have  had  comparatively 
little  sickness  amongst  us,  and  no  deaths  by  dis- 
ease that  I  am  aware  of.  Our  band  from  Roch- 
ester has  been  discharged,  and  that  seems  to 
leave  a  vacant  place  in  the  regiment.  But  really 
a  brass  band,  like  an  elephant,  is  a  cumbersome 
sort  of  luxury  to  keep.  They  are  not  expected 
to  fight,  and  yet  a  base  drum  for  instance  is  not 
a  handy  thing  to  move  with  when  cavalry  are  in 
pursuit.  We  have  occasionally  to  suffer  some 
loss  from  disability  and  a  committee  sits  every 
Monday  in  Alexandria  to  receive  applications  for 
discharges.  ALIQUIS. 


A  VISIT  TO  MOUNT  VERNON. 


next  contribution  from  the  pen  of  Ali- 
A       quis  contains  a  charming  description  of 
his  visit  to  Mount  Vernon. 

CAMP  MARY,  September  igth,  1861. 
To  the  Editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald  : 

Since  my  last  letter,  I  have  visited  Mount 
Vernon,  and  have  "done"  all  the  sights  and 
wonders  of  that  place.  This  place  is  not  now 
occupied  by  rebels,  but  is  occasionally  visited 
by  scouting  parties  of  both  sides.  We  enter  the 
Mount  Vernon  farm  long  before  we  get  to  the 
mansion  itself,  which  is  surrounded  by  quite 
large  forests.  The  farm,  as  originally  held  by 
the  General,  consisted  of  7,600  acres  now  owned 
by  a  large  number  of  persons,  mostly  of  North- 
ern birth — from  New  York  and  New  Jersey. 


98  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

The  residence  of  Washington  was  indeed  most 
beautiful.  Nature  here  is  profuse  in  her  gifts, 
and  the  finest  taste  was  exhibited  in  the  plan 
and  the  decorations  of  the  place — everything 
ample  and  spacious,  and  no.  doubt  these  mag- 
nificent surroundings  have  had  their  influence 
in  preserving  in  Washington  that  noble  love  of 
nature  and  humanity  for  which  he  was  so  noted. 
Well,  my  friend  and  I  come  up  to  the  mansion 
and  are  escorted  by  a  lady  of  the  Association, 
who  informs  us  that  we  are  requested  to  leave 
our  muskets  at  the  house  while  we  go  about  the 
grounds.  We  take  a  suspicious  look  about  us, 
and  with  a  ghastly  smile  consent  to  let  the  lady 
keep  our  guns  ;  not,  however,  without  some 
reluctance.  We  then,  after  taking  another 
cautious  look  around  us,  proceed  to  weep  duly 
over  the  tomb  of  Washington,  taking  the  pre- 
caution, however,  to  assure  ourselves  that  it  is 
not  the  ice  house,  which  much  resembles  it,  and 
which  we  understand  is  sometimes  "lingered 
over"  with  much  sadness  by  foreign  tourists. 
The  tomb  is  really  in  a  sad  condition,  and  rank 
weeds  are  intruding  themselves  through  the  iron 
grate  that  forms  the  door.  There  are  near  the 
tomb  monuments  of  other  members  of  the  family, 
among  them  that  of  Judge  Bushrod  Washington. 
The  out-houses  around  the  grounds  are  about 
twenty-five  in  number,  and  not  one  but  that  had 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  99 

the  appearance  of  being  constructed  with  a  view 
to  ornament  as  well  as  utility.  After  parading 
around  the  grounds  very  grandly,  and  imagining 
ourselves  General  Washington  taking  a  walk 
before  breakfast,  we  proceed  to  view  the  main 
house,  which  is  much  larger  than  I  supposed. 
The  first  thing  that  strikes  us  is  the  key  of  the 
Bastile,  hanging  in  a  case  on  the  wall.  After 
informing  another  visitor  that  the  Bastile  was 
not  a  smoke  house  and  that  this  was  not  the  key 
of  the  smoke  house,  we  pass  through  the  ample 
rooms  and  see  the  old  pictures,  the  holsters,  the 
saddles,  the  surveyor's  tripod,  and  finally  the 
harpsichord  made  in  Cheapside,  London,  which 
we  essay  to  play  upon,  to  the  great  amusement 
of  "  Mount  Vernon's  Association."  We  then  ex- 
press a  wish  to  go  up  stairs,  but  are  forbidden 
by  the  attendant,  who  informs  us  that  the  upper 
story  is  occupied  by  the  ladies,  so  we  are  denied 
the  pleasure  of  seeing  the  antique  specimens 
there  congregated. 

I  returned  from  Mount  Vernon,  hardly  able 
to  realize  that  I  had  been  there — hardly  able  to 
realize  that  one  was  obliged  to  visit  the  tomb  of 
our  country's  founder  and  Father,  armed  against 
a  treason  participated  in  by  descendants  of  his 
own  family  —hardly  able  to  realize  that  Wash- 
ington's remains  lie  in  the  neutral  ground  be- 
tween two  mighty  armies,  each  claiming  to  as- 


100  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWS1DTH. 

semble  in  defense  of  the  principles  for  which  he 
labored. 

The  enemy  now  seem  to  be  most  near  us  in 
the  direction  of  Fairfax.  The  Colonel,  the  Ad- 
jutant and  Captain  Palmer,  with  four  dragoons, 
rode  out  yesterday  until  they  saw  an  encamp- 
ment of  them  and  some  artillery,  over  beyond 
Bush  Hill.  While  the  party  were  there,  General 
McClellan,  at  Fort  Taylor,  ordered  some  shells 
to  be  thrown  at  the  enemy,  which  exploded  not 
far  from  them.  The  enemy,  the  Colonel  says, 
responded  in  defiance  with  a  field  piece. 

General  McClellan  comes  around  visiting  the 
camps  occasionally,  and  seems  to  be  particularly 
interested  in  strengthening  the  left  flank  of  the 
army.  He  was  in  our  camp  last  Tuesday,  and 
he,  in  company  with  Colonels  Christian  and 
Bartlett,  visited  the  pickets  and  outposts  of  our 
brigade.  Those  acquainted  with  him  report 
him  to  be  a  sociable,  modest  man,  much  addicted 
to  joking  and  smoking,  but  of  fine  sensibilities. 

We  are  daily  expecting  to  have  our  muskets 
exchanged  for  the  Springfield  rifles.  Probably 
in  a  general  engagement,  a  musket  would  be 
preferable  to  a  rifle,  as  they  become  clogged  less 
easily,  and  may  be  fired  with  greater  rapidity  ; 
but  for  scouting  or  skirmishing,  rifles  are  far 
superior.  Since  I  last  wrote,  one  of  our  men  has 
been  very  badly  wounded,  having  been  shot 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL,  ARROWSMITH.  101 

while  wandering  beyond  our  pickets  on  the 
Richmond  road.  Two  men  rose  from  behind  a 
log,  and  coolly  firing  at  him  ran  away  them- 
selves, not  daring  to  approach  him  after  he  was 
lying  on  the  ground.  This  barbarous  custom  of 
shooting  outposts  does  not  seem  to  abate  much, 
and  they  hunt  each  other  like  Indians.  At  one 
point  the  rebel  pickets  are  on  one  side  of  a  peach 
orchard  and  ours  on  the  other  ;  so  that  between 
the  two,  the  fruit  does  not  get  much  stolen.  At 
another  point,  the  federal  troops  occupy  a  church 
in  the  day  time,  and  the  rebels  at  night  ;  and 
they  both  keep  their  hours  with  remarkable 
precision. 

The  fort  upon  which  we  are  at  work  every 
day  will  be  by  far  the  largest  on  this  side  of  the 
river,  and  will  cover  several  acres  of  ground.  It 
is  on  a  fine  hill,  commanding  a  view  of  Fort 
Ellsworth,  Fort  Taylor,  and  a  rebel  post  on 
Mason's  Hill.  About  two  thousand  men  are  at 
work  with  the  picks  and  spades  every  day. 

ALIQUIS. 


SKIRMISH  AT  POHICH  CHURCH. 


T  AM  indebted  to  Mr.  Stephen  V.  Arrowsmith 
for  the  following  account  of  a  skirmish,  in 
which  two  companies  commanded  by  Captain 
Arrowsmith  were  engaged  at  a  place  called 
Pohich  Church,  where  after  a  rough  march  of 
eight  miles  before  daylight  he  surprises  the 
enemy  at  daybreak  and  captures  what  was  most 
desirable  at  that  immediate  juncture — an  invit- 
ing breakfast. 

"  At  the  skirmish  of  Pohich  Church,  he  was 
the  officer  in  command,  and  conducted  two 
companies  of  his  regiment  over  a  new  coun- 
try for  a  distance  of  seven  or  eight  miles  to  sur- 
prise, and  if  possible,  capture  a  company  of 
rebel  cavalry  who  were  quartered  in  the  church 
and  who  were  robbing  and  plundering  the  Union 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  103 

farmers  in  the  vicinity.  On  approaching  the 
church,  they  found  one  of  the  rebel  pickets, 
who  was  posted  at  some  distance  from  the 
church,  in  order  to  guard  against  surprise.  As 
soon  as  he  could  see  by  the  imperfect  light  (for 
it  was  just  at  "daybreak  in  the  morning),  that 
the  approaching  body  were  Unionists,  he  im- 
mediately rode  in  and  gave  the  alarm  to  his 
companions,  who  were  just  in  the  act  of  sitting 
down  to  enjoy  their  warm  breakfast  of  the  best 
and  most  substantial  fare  that  the  neighbor- 
ing rich  farms  could  produce.  The  surprise 
was  complete.  The  alarm  was  given — the  bugle 
sounded  'To  Horse!'  and  they  immediately 
mounted  their  horses  and  stood  in  readiness  to 
resist  an  attack. 

"  George  drew  his  men  up  in  line  and  gave 
the  command  '  Fire  ! '  when  several  of  the  rebels 
were  seen  to  roll  from  their  horses,  and  the  rest 
retreated  across  a  field  and  dismounted  behind 
a  fence,  where  they  fired  several  ineffectual 
volleys  and  fled.  George,  in  the  meantime, 
marched  his  men  into  the  church,  where  they 
took  possession  of  the  still  untouched  and  invit- 
ing breakfast  and  refreshed  themselves  after 
their  long  and  tiresome  march." 


A  WAR  CAMP  IN  AUTUMN. 


"I^HE  season  is  now  well  advanced.  The 
nights  are  getting  cold,  and  fires  are  blaz- 
ing in  the  evening,  amid  the  festivities  of  camp 
life.  The  bracing  air  revives  the  spirits  of  the 
soldiers  and  they  are  eager  for  a  great  army 
movement.  The  following  letters  are  descrip- 
tive of  an  autumn  war  camp  : 


CAMP  FRANKLIN,  VA.,  October  isth,  1861. 

To  the  Editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald  : 

The  organization  of  divisions  has  again  com- 
pelled us  to  move,  so  that  I  now  almost  regard 
myself  a  second  Wandering  Jew.  We  now  seem 
to  be  situated  right  in  the  center  of  the  army, 
near  the  Fairfax  Seminary  —  have  but  little 
picketing  to  do,  and  no  picking  on  intrench- 
ments,  and  the  latter,  I  assure  you,  is  regarded 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  105 

as  no  privation.  Another  brigade  is  now  at 
work  finishing  Fort  Lyon,  and  ours  has  again 
resumed  drilling. 

The  nights  are  now  getting  very  cold,  and 
every  stitch  of  clothing  available  is  put  into  use. 
You  may  realize  what  I  mean  by  taking  a  single 
blanket  and  sleeping  out  on  the  piazza,  some 
night — any  one  who  wishes  to  try  it.  Yet  a 
great  many  soldiers  in  the  army  now  are  unable 
to  get  that  single  blanket  even,  though  the 
department  at  Washington  is  evidently  making 
great  efforts  to  supply  them.  Overcoats  are 
also  very  scarce  in  some  of  the  regiments  ;  but  I 
understand  there  is  soon  to  be  an  abundant  sup- 
ply of  them.  Comfortable  camp  fires  are  now 
made  in  the  evening,  and  the  bracing  air  seems 
to  put  the  men  around  them  in  the  best  of  spirits. 
In  one  direction  I  hear  there  is  a  lively  quadrille, 
and  a  fiddler,  with  a  vivid  imagination,  calling 
out,  "  Ladies  change  !  "  and  "  Ladies  to  the 
right !  "  with  the  utmost  gravity.  A  great  many 
in  the  regiment  have  fixed  fire  places  in  their 
tents,  in  the  following  manner  :  A  trench  is 
dug,  four  or  five  feet  long,  one  end  within  and 
the  other  outside  the  tent.  This  is  covered  with 
stones  or  bricks,  and  a  piece  of  pipe  or  a  barrel 
connects  with  the  opening  outside,  to  carry  off 
the  smoke.  At  the  inner  opening  a  fire  is  made, 
which  heats  up  a  tent  very  well,  and  very  rarely 


106       LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

turns  any  smoke  on  the  inside — unless,  of  course, 
an  old  hat  or  a  board  is  found  to  be  placed  over 
the  pipe  outside.  This  is  fine  weather  now  for  a 
great  movement  of  some  kind,  and  we  suppose 
one  is  soon  to  be  made.  Last  Saturday  every 
one  expected  a  battle ;  the  rebels  had  made  a 
sudden  advance,  but  they  made  as  sudden  a 
withdrawal  immediately  afterward. 

Most  of  the  officers  of  this  regiment  on  last 
fast  day  made  a  resolution  to  abstain  from  the 
use  of  all  intoxicating  liquors,  which  is  at  least 
one  ''forward  movement"  made.  While  at  work 
on  the  fort,  a  gill  of  whiskey  was  dealt  out  to 
each  man  every  day,  which  sometimes  proved 
ruinous  to  all  discipline  and  order.  However, 
that  is  now  all  stopped.  As  a  general  thing 
there  is  but  very  little  drunkenness  to  be  seen 
through  the  army,  considering  the  circum- 
stances. 

In  obedience  to  orders  recently  issued,  many 
horses  and  other  valuable  property  which  had 
been  taken  from  the  "  Secesh  "  by  our  officers 
and  men  have  been  given  up  to  headquarters, 
and  some  have  thereby  returned  to  their  owners. 
Much  of  this  sort  of  property,  however,  has  been 
sold  to  the  government  in  Washington,  or  ship- 
ped north.  It  seems  to  me  to  be  the  very  worst 
feature  of  war — the  deleterious  influence  it  must 
have  on  the  morals  of  a  people,  for  the-  distinc 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  107 

tion  between  military  pillaging  and  stealing  is 
often  very  fine  and  subtle.  Those  families  just 
between  the  two  armies  have  really  a  dangerous 
and  harassed  life.  They  endeavor,  of  course,  to 
take  a  neutral  course,  which  only  subjects  them 
to  occasional  marauds  from  both  parties,  and 
sometimes  skirmishes  around  their  dwellings. 
Many  wealthy  families  have  been  driven  to  very 
coarse  living,  owing  to  the  stoppage  of  com- 
munication with  the  towns,  and  begin  to  realize 
the  folly  of  Virginia  in  making  her  soil  the  bat- 
tle ground.  There  is  many  an  aristocratic  family 
here  who  are  secessionists,  I  believe,  just  for  the 
sake  of  keeping  their  reputation  as  F.  F.  V.'s. 
Many  of  these,  by  the  way,  own  dilapidated, 
worn  out  old  farms,  and  manage  to  keep  up 
a  sort  of  Turveydrop  gentility  only  by  selling 
negroes.  However-  scarce  the  cash  or  shabby 
the  servants,  there  must  be  a  fine  dwelling-house 
with  a  spacious  door-yard  and  very  showy  en- 
trance. Here  these  hospitable  Virginians  sit  and 
muse  on  the  antiquity  and  respectability  of  their 
families,  and  show  their  visitors  their  household 
relics.  I  have  seen  at  least  a  dozen  pianos,  each 
of  which  was  the  first  ever  brought  into  Virginia, 
and  numerous  clocks  which  had  once  belonged 
to  George  Washington.  I  think  the  old  General 
must  have  had  a  way  of  giving  furniture  to  all 
of  his  acquaintances,  instead  of  locks  of  hair, 


108  LIEUTENAXT-COLONEL  AKROWSMITH. 

when  he  was  getting  old,  by  the  souvenirs  I  find. 
The  Virginia  gentleman  is  very  hospitable,  and 
if  you'll  only  praise  his  horses,  and  not  tamper 
with  his  negroes,  he'll  treat  you  finely,  without 
asking  your  politics.  At  present  his  situation 
makes  him  very  politic,  and  he  treats  officers  of 
both  armies  out  of  the  same  bottle,  and  often 
the  same  day.  So  much  for  our  "  Secesh  "  ac- 
quaintances in  Virginia.  A  broken-winded  bu- 
glei»  is  now  making  night  hideous,  by  way  of 
informing  us  that  it  is  time  the  lights  were  out 
— so  here  goes  !  ALIQUIS. 

Four  days  later  he  writes  to  his  brother  from 
the  same  place  :  "  It  is  now  nearly  midnight 
and  it  is  raining  very  hard,  but  I  have  now  got 
fixed  so  that  the  weather  does  not  bother  me. 
I  have  a  '  contraband '  whom  I  got  out  beyond 
the  pickets — a  very  faithful  fellow,  who  has 
made  a  rude  floor  to  my  tent,  and  a  kind  of  bed 
for  me  under  which  he  sleeps  contentedly.  Be- 
sides the  'contraband'  and  the  bed,  the  furni- 
ture of  my  tent  consists  of  a  trunk,  a  large  box 
for  company  clothing,  a  stand,  a  fine  armed  chair 
which  I  got  from  the  officer's  quarters  out  at 
Pohich  church  in  a  foray  which  we  made  against 
the  rebels — a  box  of  tobacco,  and  sundry  small 
articles.  We  have  moved  again  since  I  last 
wrote  and  are  no  longer  on  the  left  flank,  but 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  109 

near  the  centre  of  the  army — a  situation  requir- 
ing not  so  much  vigilance  as  the  other.  We  are 
in  Slocum's  brigade  and  General  Franklin's  divis- 
ion, which  you  may  as  well  notice  in  directing 
your  letters.  Kearney's  New  Jersey  brigade  is 
not  far  from  us  and  they  have  an  excellent  repu- 
tation. I  saw  Captain  Mount,  of  Freehold,  the 
other  day  in  Alexandria  where  his  company  is 
performing  guard  duty.  Our  brigade  has  now 
of  course  got  through  working  on  Fort  Lyon 
and  has  gone  to  drilling  again.  This  afternoon  I 
watched  a  balloon  reconnoissance  by  some  aero- 
naut, who  came  down  just  before  dark  near  our 
camp." 

CAMP  FRANKLIN,  VA.,  Nov.  roth,  1861. 
To  the  Editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald  : 

Camp  life  is  now  dull,  most  excruciatingly 
dull.  Where  we  are  now  situated  we  feel  about 
as  secure  as  we  did  at  Elmira,  and  have  almost 
forgotten  what  we  came  here  for — the  chief  ob- 
ject of  the  campaign  being,  in  appearance,  to 
keep  warm.  All  who  have  any  good  pretext  are 
endeavoring  to  get  leaves  of  absence,  and  some 
successfully.  As  for  me,  my  wife  and  children 
are  so  provokingly  healthy,  and  my  appetite  so, 
wofully  good,  that  I  am  obliged  to  remain  here, 
disgusted  with  the  general  inactivity,  and  won- 
dering what  will  turn  up  next. 


110  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

I  notice  that  the  ladies  of  the  North  are  al- 
ready responding  to  the  numerous  calls  for 
blankets  with  a  renewed  liberality.  The  little 
town  of  Taberg,  for  instance,  with  not  over  five 
hundred  vcrters,  has  sent  Company  E  two  im- 
mense boxes  of  useful  clothing,  consisting  chiefly 
of  blankets  and  socks.  The  former  were  parti- 
cularly acceptable,  but  not  more  so  than  a  large 
number  of  bottles  containing  "hospital  stores," 
known  in  times  of  peace  as  elderberry  wine  and 
brandy.  The  above  large  donation  was,  I  learn, 
made  by  the  ladies  of  Taberg  and  vicinity, 
under  the  auspices  of  a  Mrs.  Ingersoll  of  the 
above  place.  I  was  enthusiastically  informed 
of  this  by  Lieutenant  Coventry,  Charles  Beach 
and  Frank  Ingersoll  of  Company  E,  whose 
happy  faces  were  only  equalled  by  my  own, 
when  I,  being  in  the  hospital,  had  inspected  the 
aforesaid  "stores."  But  there  was  also  "  a  epi- 
sode," as  Ward  says,  at  my  tent,  followed  by 
several  more  "  episodes."  I  refer  to  blankets, 
bedticks,  etc.,  which  some  unknown  lady  friends 
have  sent  me.  I  havn't  heard  a  reveille  since. 
The  box  from  Mrs.  Rockwell  and  her  friends,  I 
understand,  is  now  in  the  express  office.  The 
patriotism  of  these  ladies  is  only  equalled  by 
that  of  those  who,  remembering  us  that  are  sick, 
sent  on  the  "  hospital  stores." 

Colonel  Christian  arrived  in  camp  yesterday, 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  Ill 

having  just  returned  from  a  two  days'  leave  of 
absence  in  New  York  city.  It  is  strongly 
suspected  that  he  has  been  perpetrating  mar- 
riage, but  no  court-martial  has  yet  been  con- 
vened on  the  subject.  It  is  earnestly  hoped  that 
no  such  deleterious  example  should  be  held  up 
before  our  volunteers,  nevertheless  rumor  says 
that  he  has  really  taken  the  "  oath  of  allegiance 
to  the  Union,"  and  been  duly  "sworn  into  the 
service." 

Seven  companies  of  our  regiment  have  to-day 
just  returned  from  the  outposts,  where  they  have 
been  picketing  for  the  last  four  days,  some  of 
them  at  Annandale.  Some  of  the  Twenty-third 
regiment  were  cut  off  while  they  were  out,  but 
ours  were  not  seriously  disturbed. 

Since  I  last  wrote,  we  have  changed  the  situa- 
tion of  our  camp  merely  to  get  out  of  the  mud, 
into  which  we  were  fast  sinking  in  our  old  place. 
The  weather  is  still  rather  cool  and  rainy,  and 
sometimes  very  heavy  frosts  are  found  in  the 
morning.  Many  of  the  men  now  have  little 
stoves  in  the  tents,  which  are  much  better  than 
our  fancy  fire-places,  which  have  contracted  a 
habit  of  smoking. 

Last  Wednesday  we  were  again  paid  off. 
This  of  course  drew  near  the  camp  a  long  line 
of  passing  wagons,  which  appeared  like  a 
Hebrew  funeral,  old  women  with  baskets  and 


112  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

boys  with  pails,  all  sorts  of  sharks  selling  to  the 
soldiers  very  poor  specimens  of  everything  at 
very  high  prices.  Some,  however,  send  nearly 
all  their  wages  home.  ALIQUIS. 

November  i3th,  1861,  another  letter  from 
Camp  Franklin  to  his  brother  is  as  follows  : 

"  We  are  doing  nothing  much  but  drill  and 
have  no  unusual  excitement.  Our  commissions 
have  just  come  and  I  am  sorry  to  find  that  I'm 
not  entitled  to  the  place  of  Color-Captain,  which 
I  have  been  holding,  and  must  go  into  the  left 
wing.  I  find  my  commission  dates  fifth  in  order 
instead  of  third,  as  I  had  supposed.  But  it 
don't  make  much  difference.  Tom  [his  brother] 
and  Captain  Charley  [a  cousin]  were  over  to 
see  me  about  a  week  ago,  and  I  since  have  made 
them  a  visit  near  Fort  Corcoran.  Tom  is  Com- 
missary Sergeant — the  same  as  ever,  a  favorite 
with  all  and  with  the  privilege  of  going  every- 
where he  pleases — says  he  is  sure  of  a  commis- 
sion, etc.,  and  is  well  and  hearty  —  rides  a 
splendid  horse  and  gets  up  in  style.  Charley 
has  the  prospect  of  being  a  Major  before  long, 
he  tells  me.  On  my  way  over  there  I  saw  Jim 
Story,  who  is  a  Corporal  and  was  sick  in  the 
hospital,  and  George  Bowne,  who  seems  to  have 
grown  a  great  deal.  Tom  lent  me  a  cavalry 
horse  to  come  back  with." 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARKOWSMITH.  113 

Of  course  these  extracts  from  private  letters 
were  never  intended  for  publication,  but  after 
an  elapse  of  thirty  years  I  am  sure  they  will  be 
read  with  interest  and  gratification  by  his  old 
friends  and  comrades. 


THE  CHAPLAIN  ARRIVES. 


"TOURING  the  summer  the  regiment  was  with- 
^^^  out  any  adequate  religious  aid  or  in- 
struction, and  it  was  not  until  the  month  of 
October,  1861,  that  their  excellent  chaplain,  Rev. 
Dr.  D.  W.  Bristol,  received  his  appointment 
and  went  on  to  the  regiment.  His  influence,  it 
is  stated,  was  most  happy  and  beneficial.  The 
following  extract  is  from  a  letter  of  Dr.  Bris- 
tol, dated  November  22d,  1861  : 

"  Notwithstanding  our  difficulties,  we  have 
formed  regimental  church  of  some  fifteen  mem- 
bers. We  lay  aside  our  denominational  pecul- 
iarities for  the  time  being,  and  covenant  to  keep 
each  other  in  the  religious  life.  Several  wan- 
derers have  returned  to  the  great  Master,  and 
one,  we  trust,  has  been  converted.  We  have  also 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  .ARROWSMITH.  115 

organized  a  temperance  society,  which  numbers, 
I  judge,  somewhere  about  eighty  members.  Our 
beginning,  we  think,  taking  into  account  all  the 
circumstances,  is  a  good  one  and  encouraging." 


A  SOLDIER  S  THANKSGIVING. 

T  N  the  following,  Aliquis  indicates  why  Gen- 
erals  Smith  and  Jones  can  enjoy  a  military 
review  so  much  more  than  the  men  in  the  ranks, 
and  then  proceeds  to  draw  upon  his  poetic  im- 
agination for  a  Thanksgiving  dinner. 

CAMP  FRANKLIN,  VA.,  November  24th,  1861. 
To  the  Editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald : 

Since  I  last  wrote,  I  have  been  out  on  picket. 
This  in  cold  weather  is  not  so  uncomfortable  a 
duty  as  might  at  first  be  imagined,  as  nearly  all 
the  pickets  are  cantoned  in  deserted  houses. 
Ours  are  nearly  all  stationed  out  at  Annandale, 
where  they  are  not  much  disturbed,  except  in 
their  imaginations,  perhaps,  by  some  rebel  artil- 
lery practising  occasionally.  On  the  day  of  the 
great  review,  last  Wednesday,  they  kept  up  a 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  117 

constant  cannonading;  with  what  object  I  know 
not,  perhaps  by  way  of  defiance.  Our  regiment 
was  sent  out  on  picket  duty  then,  because  we 
had  "no  new  clothes  to  go  to  the  show  in  ;  "  for 
Generals,  you  must  know,  like  to  see  nice 
parades,  to  revive,  I  suppose,  the  recollections 
of  boyish  Fourths  and  "  trainin's  ";  so  I  cannot 
tell  you  much  about  the  great  review,  but  I  shall 
have  to  content  myself  with  imagining.  There 
were  innumerable  white  gloves,  epaulettes  and 
brass  buttons — the  Generals  were  very  dignified 
and  paternal — the  mounted  officers  very  serene 
and  fearless  on  their  horses,  spurring  them  for- 
ward on  the  ranks  and  then  curbing  them  back- 
ward on  the  brass  bands — the  line  officers  very 
responsible  and  alarrningly  straight  in  the  back 
— the  men  in  the  ranks  tired  and  sullen,  and  the 
brass  bands  very  enduring  to  the  end.  The  im- 
mense procession  marched  around  the  field,  and 
then  Generals  Smith  and  Jones  saluted  each 
other  and  rode  home,  wondering,  I  suppose, 
why  the  men  never  seem  to  enjoy  these  reviews. 
The  Twenty-sixth,  I  suppose,  will  be  allowed  to 
go  to  the  next  great  parade,  as  we  have  just  got 
a  splendid  new  suit  of  clothes,  overcoats  and 
pants  of  dark  blue  cloth,  and  very  neat  forage 
caps.  You  are  already  aware  that  we  have 
Sauer's  brass  band  back  again,  which,  with  the 
drum-corps,  facetiously  called  "boiler-makers," 


118  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

furnish  us  with  an  abundance  of  music.  Every 
regiment  in  our  brigade  now  has  its  brass  band, 
so  that  one  may  be  heard  playing  nearly  any 
hour  in  the  day. 

Dr  Bristol,  our  Chaplain,  is  laboring  assidu- 
ously for  the  welfare  of  the  men,  and  he  has 
formed  a  temperance  organization,  which  is 
gradually  gaining  in  strength.  It  has  been  in- 
correctly stated  that  Colonel  Christian  was  the 
President  of  this  society.  This  was  indeed 
proffered  him,  but  he  declined  accepting  it,  as 
his  military  duties,  he  believed,  would  not  al- 
low him  to  take  the  leadership  in  any  collat- 
eral organization,  though,  of  course,  willing,  as 
much  as  possible,  to  promote  the  cause  of  tem- 
perance. 

Well,  the  day  is  nigh  at  hand  when  the  sov- 
erign  people  of  New  York  are  to  return  thanks 
to  Divine  Providence  for  the  good  digestive 
organs  with  which  they  are  gifted,  and  test 
them  accordingly.  As  this  day  approaches,  I 
am  thereat  much  affected  ;  for  in  the  poultry 
line,  I  am  conscious  that  they'll  "  miss  me  at 
home,  yes,  they'll  miss  me."  I  assure  you  many 
a  Northern  soldier  thinks  of  his  home  in  these 
times  ;  of  the  old  family  gatherings  ;  the  great 
gastronomical  exhibitions,  concluding  with  a 
grand  display  of  molasses  candy  in  the  evening. 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  119 

Oft  in  the  stilly  night, 

Ere  slumber's  chain  hath  bound  me, 
The  thoughts  of  poultry  bring  the  light 

Of  other  days  around  me — 
Thanksgiving  feasts  of  childhood's  years, 

The  words  of  cheer  then  spoken — 
And  then  to  think  I'm  penned  up  here, 

And  all  the  hen-roosts  played  out  long  ago, 
And  my  hopes  of  getting  a  furlough  completely 
broken. 

When  I  remember  all 

The  turkeys -flocked  together, 
I've  seen  around  me  in  the  Fall, 

Up  North,  in  just  this  weather, 
I  feel  like  one  who  treads  alone 

Some  dining-room  deserted, 
Whose  lights  are  fled,  whose  garlands  dead, 

And  seein'  he's  got  there  too  late, 
Every  darned  joint  of  poultry  has  long  since 
departed. 

The  Fifth  Maine  Regiment,  whose  camp  ad- 
joins ours,  have  just  received  twenty  cases  of 
turkeys  from  their  native  State,  with  which  to 
do  the  honors  of  Thanksgiving  day.  I  wouldn't 
like  to  be  invited  over  there  !  Oh.  no,  not  a  bit 
of  it.  It  ain't  my  style  !  (As  Ward  says,  the 
above  should  be  understood  as  irony.) 

Many  blankets  have  been  received  here  lately 
from  private  sources,  which  have  greatly  in- 
creased the  comfort  of  the  men,  and  many  a 


120  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

grateful  expression  have  I  heard  used  when  were 
received  the  liberal  contribution  from  the  ladies 
of  Utica  and  Hamilton;  quite  a  variety  of  cloth- 
ing has  been  sent  through  me  to  men  in  this 
regiment,  for  which  thanks  to  all,  the  known 
and  the  unknown. 

More  vigorous  measures  for  the  apprehension 
of  deserters  are,  I  understand,  to  be  now  taken 
by  the  government.  Many  are  instigated  to 
desert  by  secessionists  in  Alexandria,  some  of 
whom  are  now  already  ferreted  out  and  arrested, 
as  I  learn  to-day.  Some  have  decamped  from 
the  Twenty-sixth  since  pay-day,  and  they  will 
be  retaken,  I  suppose,  if  possible. 

Money  is  very  plentiful  around  Alexandria 
and  Washington,  and  peddling  of  all  kinds  is 
very  profitable.  After  a  pay-day,  when  about 
twenty-five  or  thirty  thousand  dollars  is  distrib- 
uted through  a  regiment,  it  is  astonishing  to 
see  with  what  reckless  freedom  money  is  ex- 
pended. Alexandria  is  now  thronged  with  Jews 
and  Yankees  vying  with  the  native  citizens  as  to 
who  shall  carry  off  the  greatest  amount  of  army 
gold.  Fancy  stores  and  saloons  are  continually 
crowded,  and  finely  dressed,  polite  gentlemen 
are  keeping  lucrative  "club-rooms,"  more  accu- 
rately, "  gambling  hells."  Rabid  secessionists 
are  fast  getting  wealthy  off  of  the  Union  army, 
and  pocketing  the  new,  hard  gold  with  "  1861  " 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  121 

stamped  on  it.  Still,  I  suppose,  it  can't  be 
helped,  while  we  remain  here.  It  is  the  uni- 
versal wish  that  we  may  very  soon  go  further 
south.  ALIQUIS. 

A  letter  to  his  brother  Stephen  on  January  nth, 
1862,  is  addressed  from  Acquia  Creek,  Virginia. 
He  writes:  "I  went  out  on  another  raid  night 
before  last  and  came  back  last  night — about  ten 
miles  out.  Nothing  important  resulted  from  it, 
but  the  march  back  was  the  worst  one  I  ever 
was  on.  A  cold  rain  was  falling.  The  road  was 
mostly  through  the  woods,  and  the  soil  of  clay. 
The  mud  was  knee-deep  nearly  all  the  way, 
and  so  dark  no  one  man  could  see  the  other. 
I've  just  enough  of  the  '  raid  business  '  for  the 
present.  We  had  a  very  dull  holiday  week. 
Your  skating  frolic  would  have  been  all  I  could 
ask  for.  I,  too,  have  had  a  letter  from  Tom. 
Soon  as  the  Colonel  gets  back  I  shall  make  an 
effort  to  visit  him.  He  lies  about  ten  miles 
from  here.  Still  in  our  comfortable  quarters, 
with  rumors  of  a  move  towards  Warrenton,  but 
nothing  definite.  Sigel  has  returned,  and  we 
are  all  ready.  Where  is  the  Twenty-ninth  New 
Jersey?  I'd  like  to  know  where  to  find  them." 

A  week  later,  from  the  same  place,  he  again 
addresses  his  brother: 

"  No  letter  from  home  this  week.    The  Colonel 


122  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

has  returned,  and  I  am  relieved  from  much  of 
my  responsibilty.  About  a  third  of  our  line 
officers  have  been  compelled -to  resign  from  dis- 
ability, either  mental  or  physical,  so  we're  having 
a  little  revolution  among  us.  To-night  we're 
making  an  attempt  to  catch  a  '  secesh  '  that's 
aiding  our  men  to  desert.  We  have  had  about 
six  desertions  within  a  week.  We've  got  a  stool 
pigeon  out  to-night  for  him  to  practise  on.  We 
have  been  expecting  to  move  daily  for  about  a 
week,  and  we  now  expect  to  be  ordered  off  to- 
morrow. In  what  direction  no  one  knows.  The 
weather  is  fine  yet,  and  the  nights  beautiful.  I 
occasionally  pass  my  evenings  with  a  family 
near  here — a  son,  a  major  in  secessia,  but  very 
pleasant.  My  love  to  all.  GEORGE." 


FORT  LYON. 


February  5th,  1862,  he  is  again  back  at 
Fort  Lyon.  He  writes:  "  I  was  employed 
for  twelve  days  as  judge  advocate  on  a  general 
court  martial,  which,  by  the  way,  is  a  very  labor- 
ious position.  I,  however,  got  $1.25  extra  a  day 
while  I  was  thus  at  work,  and  was  relieved  from 
all  other  duty,  which  was  the  bright  side  of  the 
picture.  We  have  had  the  '  allotment  rules  '  in 
circulation  through  the  camp  —  I  suppose  you 
have  heard  of  them — and  I  have  directed  twenty- 
five  dollars  a  month  of  my  pay  hereafter  to  be 
sent  to  father,  and  I  hope  generally  to  make 
some  additions  by  letter  to  this.  I  have  not  seen 
George  Bowne  since  I  was  home  ;  his  company, 
I  learn,  has  gone  over  the  river,  and  is — I  do  not 
know  where." 

March  4th,   1862,  he  writes  to    Stephen  from 


124  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

Fort  Lyon.  He  states:  "We  have  had  some  ter- 
rible hurricanes  and  a  great  deal  of  rain,  which 
has  made  tent  life  rather  disagreeable,  but  I 
have  weathered  it  all  and  kept  my  health.  One 
of  our  company  died  about  two  weeks  ago,  the 
first  since  we  have  been  in  the  service.  I  had 
the  body  embalmed  and  sent  home  to  Utica  last 
week.  I  haven't  seen  Tom  in  about  a  month, 
and  he  was  well  and  happy  then,  and  Charley 
was  a  major.  I  don't  think  now  there  is  much 
chance  of  being  sent  away,  but  everything  seems 
to  indicate  a  movement  of  some  kind  here.  Mc- 
Clellan's  command  now  seems  to  be  the  only 
corps  that  is  inactive,  and  I  suppose  its  turn 
must  soon  come  now.  We  are  now  attached  to 
Heintzelman's  division.  We  occasionally  have 
some  fine  weather  here  now,  but  as  a  general 
thing  high  winds  prevail.  These  hurricanes,  if 
they  don't  blow  down  our  tents  and  leave  us 
suddenly  out-doors,  always  twist  the  stove-pipes 
around  so,  that  fire  is  a  nuisance,  and  cooking 
out  of  the  question.  On  such  occasions  we're 
obliged  to  eat  'what's  left.'  About  two  weeks 
ago  we  had  a  gale  which  tore  trees  and  over- 
turned houses,  and  even  baggage  wagons,  but  I 
suppose  we  shall  soon  have  some  fine  weather. 
Well,  Stevey,  write  and  tell  me  the  news  and 
don't  wait  for  me.  If  anything  happens  to  me, 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  125 

or  we  make  any  movement,  I  shall  write  as  soon 
as  feasible." 

Thus,  beset  by  "  hurricanes  "  and  the  lesser 
annoyances  of  "twisted  stove-pipes,"  he  con- 
soles himself  with  the  hope  of  finer  weather  in 
the  future.  One  of  Captain  Arrowsmith's  vir- 
tues was  his  happy  disposition  and  cheerful  con- 
tentment with  his  surroundings,  let  them  be 
what  they  would.  He  was  never  finding  fault 
with  anybody  or  anything.  If  he  had  reason  to 
believe  that  his  company  would  be  made  the 
color  company,  of  the  first  in  rank,  he  still  ac- 
cepts it  for  the  best  when  he  finds  it  is  other- 
wise ;  though  in  politics  of  a  party  that  is  op- 
posed to  the  war,  no  word  escapes  him  disparag- 
ing to  the  government  or  its  policy.  Whatever 
may  have  been  the  shortcomings  of  a  superior 
officer,  and  sometimes  they  were  certainly  con- 
spicuous, he  never  refers  to  them.  Though 
longing  for  an  advance  and  the  stirring  events 
of  an  aggressive  campaign,  he  is  not  impatient 
of  inactivity.  He  is  a  true  soldier,  and  accepts 
with  philosophical  equanimity  every  condition 
by  which  he  is  confronted. 

On  March  28th,  1862,  he  writes  to  his  brother 
from  Fort  Lyon,  Virginia  : 

"  I  suppose  you  have  been  anxious  lately  to 
know  whether  or  not  we  have  gone  off  on  the 


126  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSM1TH. 

expedition  which  embarked  from  Alexandria 
lately.  You  see  by  this,  however,  that  I  am  in 
the  same  place,  and  may  have  to  remain  here 
yet  some  time.  We  are  having  splendid  weather 
such  as  you  have  in  May  when  you  are  planting, 
etc.  To-day  I  took  a  long  tramp  over  the  coun- 
try, but  did  not  see  much,  though,  but  desolation. 
The  New  Jersey  cavalry  is  yet  near  us,  having 
been  left  to  do  scouting  duty  around  the  left 
flank  of  the  army.  I  saw  George  Bowne  last 
Sunday  and  he  was  looking  very  well  and  hearty. 
I  am  not  able  to  ascertain  whether  Tom's  regi- 
ment went  off  with  the  expedition  or  not,  and 
havn't  scan  him  in  some  time.  I  send  enclosed 
a  portrait  of  our  Surgeon,  a  good  friend  of  mine 
in  the  regiment.  I  am  still  well  and  hearty. 
"Your  affectionate  brother,  GEORGE." 


ALONG  THE  RAPPAHANNOCK. 


A  FTER  a  break  of   several    months,  he  re- 
sumes  his  letters  to  the  Utica  Herald. 

CAMP  RICKETTS,  May  i2th,  1862. 
To  the  Editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald: 

"Once  more  unto  the  breach,  dear  friends." 
The  only  way  I  can  justify  the  above  quotation, 
which  I  feel  really  conscientious  about,  is  by  re- 
minding you  of  the  great  breach  there  has  been 
of  late  in  the  correspondence  of  your  humble 
servant,  the  undersigned.  Our  camp  above- 
mentioned  is  named  after  our  present  Brigadier- 
General,  and  is  not  suggestive  of  any  particular 
disease  prevailing  in  camp,  as  might  at  first  ap- 
pear. 

After  lying  in  a  torpid  state  near  Fort  Lyon 
all  winter,  we  finally  moved  out  of  our  haunts 


128  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

about  two  weeks  ago,  and  at  present  we  infest 
the  forests  along  the  Rappahannock.  The  mov- 
ing of  the  regiment  infused  new  life  into  all  ; 
even  the  subscriber  girded  up  his  loins,  paid 
some  of  his  debts,  disguised  himself  in  a  collar, 
and  commenced  the  present  letter. 

The  Twenty-sixth  is  at  present  in  a  brigade 
commanded  by  General  James  B.  Ricketts,  form- 
erly captain  of  a  regular  battery  which  was  cap- 
tured at  Bull  Run,  when  its  commander,  above 
referred  to,  was  wounded  and  taken  prisoner. 
He  is  said  to  be  a  genuine  fighting  man.  As  we 
are  the  senior  regiment  of  the  brigade  we  occupy 
the  right  in  line  of  battle.  The  regiments  bri- 
gaded with  us  are  the  Ninety-fourth  New  York, 
the  Eighty-eighth  and  Ninetieth  Pennsylvania. 

The  greatest  part  of  McDowell's  army  still  lies 
on  the  Falmouth  side  of  the  river,  one  brigade 
only  on  the  Fredericksburg  side,  though  com- 
munication is  free  to  and  fro  now  by  the  pon- 
toon bridge  lately  thrown  across.  The  rebels 
have  a  force  a  short  distance  from  the  city,  and 
still  use  the  railroad  that  runs  to  Richmond. 
Fredericksburg  is  a  city  that  presents  quite  an 
ancient  appearance,  as,  indeed,  it  is  an  old  town, 
having  before  the  war  some  pretentions  to  busi- 
ness activity.  The  country  around  is  finely 
adapted  to  raising  corn  and  wheat,  and  immense 
fields  of  the  latter  are  growing  thriftily,  unin- 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  129 

jured  by  the  army,  as  waste  and  marauding  are 
now  the  subject  of  very  strict  martial  rules. 
Except  when  the  land,  after  being  run  out,  has 
been  given  over  to  scrub-oak  and  puny  growth 
of  pines,  the  country  here  presents  a  beautiful 
appearance — green  plats  sloping  down  towards 
the  Rappahannock,  which  rolls  peacefully  along, 
with  only  the  burned  bridges  and  destroyed 
shipping  to  remind  us  of  the  war.  Over  in  the 
city  the  places  of  business  are  mostly  closed,  and 
it  presents  a  sombre  aspect,  with  little  groups 
of  citizens  lazily  talking  at  the  corners  of  the 
streets,  the  omnipresent  sentinel,  and  a  few 
ladies  for  whom  you  must  step  out  into  the 
street,  as  chivalry  and  their  crinoline  seem  to 
entitle  them  to  all  the  sidewalk. 

You  find  one  public-house  open — the  Planter's 
Hotel — the  proprietor  of  which  is  a  very  quiet 
man,  who  never  seems  to  meddle  with  either 
politics  or  victuals,  and  the  guest  is  annoyed 
very  little  with  either.  Here  you  may  get  some 
bacon,  bread  and  butter,  and  tea,  facetiously 
called  a  dinner,  for  fifty  cents  ;  but  you  must 
make  your  own  change  when  you  pay  for  it,  or 
you  will  receive  in  return  perhaps  a  corporation 
shinplaster,  or  a  Confederate  States  of  America 
postage  stamp,  with  a  one-eyed  picture  of  Jeff. 
Davis  on  it.  I  think  some  visiting  cards  or  rail- 
road checks  might  make  an  excellent  circulating 


130  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

medium  here  now,  for  almost  anything  in  the 
shape  of  a  bill  will  pass.  Even  the  F.  F.  V.'s  do 
not  have  many  of  the  luxuries  of  the  table  at 
present.  Whiskey  is  almost  unknown  in  Fred- 
ericksburg,  and  appears  only  in  saddened  recol- 
lections. Bacon  and  corn  bread  are  the  articles 
of  food  mostly  in  use  here,  with  some  tobacco 
and  a  little  abuse  of  the  Northerners  by  way  of 
dessert.  The  political  leaders  around  have  told 
me  some  pretty  tough  stories  about  us  "  Yan- 
kees," which  I  think  they  did  not  believe  them- 
selves. Sometime  since  I  was  seriously  asked 
by  a  lady  in  a  rural  district  if  the  Yankee  soldiers 
really  did  make  a  practice  of  murdering  the 
children  in  the  South,  so  as  to  eventually  crush 
the  rebellion  in  this  manner.  Upon  my  inform- 
ing her  of  the  delight  with  which  we  participate 
in  the  above  refreshing  diversion,  I  think  she 
really  believed  me,  until  my  "silvery  laugh" 
gave  her  to  understand  that  it  was  a  "goak." 
But  the  farmers  here  already  begin  to  find  that 
a  Northern  army  is  not  so  bad  a  master  after  all. 
The  Southern  pickets  are  stationed  not  far 
from  the  city,  and  skirmishes  with  them  are 
of  frequent  occurrence,  though  it  is  generally 
believed  that  no  very  large  force  lies  in  front  of 
us.  What  is  proposed  to  be  done  with  our  corps 
it  is  impossible  to  say,  but  I  suppose  we  shall 
push  on  soon.  The  railroad  bridges  between 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  131 

here  and  Acquia  Creek,  that  were  burned  by  the 
rebels  on  their  retreat,  are  now  nearly  recon- 
structed, and  we  shall  soon  have  easy  communi- 
cation with  Washington;  and  so  we  may  expect 
a  rush  of  merchants  to  this  place,  bringing  with 
them  all  the  benefits  and  evils  of  Northern  en- 
terprise. 

Our  regiment  endured  the  winter  with  but 
little  loss.  We  have  had  some  tiresome  marches 
since  we  came  out  of  our  quarters,  yet  our  aggre- 
gate is  yet  eight  hundred  and  "forty  men,  which 
is  larger,  I  understand,  than  that  of  any  other 
New  York  regiment  with  the  exception  of  the 
Forty-fourth,  alias  the  Ellsworth  regiment.  The 
General  this  morning  told  the  Colonel  that  we 
might  hold  ourselves  prepared  to  act  as  skir- 
mishers at  the  first  opportunity,  so  that  alto- 
gether we  are  well  satisfied  with  ourselves  and 
in  the  best  of  spirits.  Were  it  not  that  compli- 
ments paid  to  regiments  were  so  stereotyped, 
and  belong  peculiarly  to  the  "  mutual  admira- 
tion society,"  I  would  repeat  some  paid  us  since 
our  arrival  in  this  corps.  We  are  at  present 
using  the  little  shelter  tents,  which  are  trans- 
ported from  place  to  place  on  the  backs  of  the 
men  ;  but  in  this  mild  weather  we  are  taking 
the  fortunes  of  campaigning  quite  comfortably. 
Camp  inconveniences  have,  however,  obliged 
me  to  violate  a  rule  of  press  etiquette  in  the 


132  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

form  of  my  manuscript,  which  I  beg  you   will 
excuse 

Yours  truly,  ALIQUIS. 

CAMP  RICKETTS,  May  24th,  1862. 
To  the  Editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald : 

I  fortunately  have  better  conveniences  for 
writing  than  I  had  when  I  sent  you  my  last.  1 
have  mounted  a  steel  pen  en  barbette  on  a  pine 
stick,  and  am  writing  in  a  position  which  com- 
bines the  po'sture  of  a  Turk  with  the  grace 
of  the  "  What-is-it."  We're  having  splendid 
weather  now — cool  and  refreshing  in  the  morn- 
ing, but  quite  warm  about  noon,  bringing  out 
snakes  of  various  sizes  and  hue,  to  bask  along 
the  edge  of  the  roads  where  we  are  encamped. 
These  unprincipled  reptiles  will  sometimes  even 
"  vex  the  drowsy  ear  of  night "  with  their  rust- 
lings among  the  leaves  right  around  our  tents. 
One  of  our  officers,  a  few  nights  ago,  was  dis- 
covered in  an  undress  uniform,  making  some 
very  agile  movements  by  a  fire  in  front  of  his 
tent,  in  such  a  way  that  many  supposed  he  was 
practising  the  "  Indian  War  Dance."  It  was 
soon  ascertained,  however,  that  he  was  merely 
poking  up  a  snake  that  had  been  sharing  his 
hospitality,  while  he  was  asleep,  by  entering  his 
tent  and  occupying  a  part  of  his  blanket.  Don't 
understand,  for  a  moment,  that  we're  afraid  of 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITIT.  133 

snakes.  By  no  means;  but  then,  such  proceed- 
ings are  unmilitary,  to  -say  the  least,  towards  an 
officer.  Near  this  place  is  a  stream  called  "  Rat- 
tlesnake Creek."  I  don't  care  (?)  but  then  I  wish 
they'd  give  places  more  euphonious  names. 

All  the  country  around  here,  if  divided  up  in 
smaller  farms,  and  worked  by  some  good  North- 
ern "mud-sills,"  could  be  brought  under  the 
finest  cultivation.  As  it  is,  some  of  it  is  very 
productive,  and  will  produce  almost  anything. 
Adjoining  our  camp  is  a  wheat  field,  containing, 
I  should  think,  about  seventy-five  acres.  Its 
rank  growth  is  undisturbed  by  the  soldiery,  for 
no  one  is  allowed  to  walk  through  it,  which  cer- 
tainly no  soldier  that  had  ever  been  a  farmer's 
boy  could  have  the  heart  to  do.  Most  of  the 
men  who  were  left  behind  here,  by  the  Southern 
army,  I  think,  are  the  "  first  families  of  Vir- 
ginia"— that  is,  I  think,  they  were  the  first  men 
that  ever  emigrated  here,  and  have  been  here 
ever  since.  Very  few  young,  able-bodied  men 
are  to  be  found,  and  these  all  have  their  stories 
to  relate  of  their  perilous  escapes  from  the 
Southern  cavalry. 

About  half  a  mile  from  our  camp  is  General 
Ricketts's  headquarters — a  fine  mansion,  with 
its  owner,  a  rank  secessionist,  still  occupying  a 
part  of  it.  A  flag-staff  and  flag  appear  in  the 
yard  now,  to  the  evident  disgust  of  the  rebel 


184  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

host,  who  lately  called  it  a  dishrag,  in  the  hear- 
ing of  a  sentry  there.  It  requires  all  the  patience 
that  our  men  are  possessed  of  to  restrain  from 
acts  of  violence,  when  some  protected  traitor 
thus  speaks  of  the  flag  and  cause  for  which 
they  are  periling  their  lives.  But,  I  suppose,  it 
is  all  for  the  best. 

Mrs.  Ricketts  is  still  with  her  husband  ;  and 
as  she  rides  around  the  brigade  with  him,  she  is 
vociferously  cheered  by  the  men,  of  whom  she 
is  the  idol.  Her  romantic  journey  to  Richmond, 
to  join  her  husband  in  his  painful  imprisonment, 
already  belongs  to  history,  and  is  the  theme  of 
abler  pens  than  mine.  Her  tale  of  the  Rich- 
mond prisons,  bringing  to  light  the  character  of 
many  of  the  most  prominent  Southern  generals 
and  Northern  patriots,  is  of  the  most  thrilling 
interest,  and  throws  far  in  the  shade  the  narra- 
tive of  the  Baroness  Reidesel  as  a  matter  of  his- 
torical romance.  Soldiers  of  this  corps,  who 
were  then  prisoners  of  war,  are  now  frequently 
seen  at  headquarters,  returning  thanks  for  her 
kindness  towards  them  in  those  hours  of  suffer- 
ing ;  and  letters,  expressive  of  gratitude,  are 
coming  to  her  almost  daily. 

General  Ricketts  is  now  in  command  of  a  fine 
brigade,  who  all  hope,  some  day,  to  aid  him  to 
enter  Richmond  in  triumph. 

General    Shield's    division    arrived    here    last 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  135 

night,  very  footsore  and  weary.  Our  corps  is 
now  complete,  and  we  are  expecting  orders  to 
march  almost  hourly,  as  we  are  held  in  constant 
readiness.  Our  division  was  paraded  this  after- 
noon before  President  Lincoln  and  Secretary 
Stanton,  with  the  requisite  amount  of  gilt,  white 
gloves,  music  and  cheering.  The  President  was 
quite  a  curiosity  to  our  secesh  neighbors,  who,  I 
suppose,  expected  to  see  him  in  his  shirt  sleeves 
with  an  axe  on  his  shoulders.  We  regard  Lin- 
coln's visit  to  this  corps  as  the  forerunner  of  an 
immediate  advance. 

Our  division  is  commanded  by  General  Ord, 
of  Drainesville  notoriety,  an  officer  of  high  re- 
pute, who,  it  is  said,  will  take  the  right  of  the 
corps  in  the  advance.  He  rides  a  restless  bay 
horse,  which,  like  the  famous  cork-leg  in  the 
song,  seems  determined  never  to  stop.  This 
animal  has  a  peculiar  way  of  sideling  up  against 
fences  and  switching  his  tail  in  the  faces  of  "  the 
staff"  and  backing  into  the  crowd,  and  making 
himself  generally  "around."  Why  am  I  so  par- 
ticular in  describing  this  horse  ?  Because  you 
know  an  officer  more  by  his  horse  than  his 
"general  orders,"  and  I  know  of  no  better  way 
of  giving  an  impression  of  the  nervous,  grim, 
old  Son  of  Mars  who  rides  him. 

Fredericksburg  is  beginning  to  look  more 
lively.  Mr.  Hunt  of  New  York,  alias  Farini, 


136  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

the  tight-rope  walker,  has  opened  the  Shaks- 
peare  House,  which,  if  I  was  a  "penny-a-liner," 
I  should  say  was  so  named  because  it  was  the 
birthplace  of  the  great  English  poet,  but  as  it  is, 
I  shall  not  venture  it.  Some  fine  stores  are 
opened,  and  the  necessaries  of  life,  beef,  beer, 
billiards,  etc.,  are  available.  The  railroad  bridge 
across  the  Rappahannock  is  guarded  with  the 
greatest  strictness,  and  the  destruction  of  it 
would  be  the  cause  of  great  delay.  My  next  I 
hope  to  write  in  a  different  camp. 

ALIQUIS. 


TALKS  WITH   PRISONERS. 

A  FORCED  march  from  Fredericksburg  in 
'^^  the  hope  of  surprising  Stonewall  Jackson, 
brings  the  brigade  to  Front  Royal,  near  the 
Shenandoah  river,  from  which  place  comes  the 
next  letter. 

FRONT  ROYAL,  VA.,  June  i3th,  1862. 
To  the  Editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald: 

This  morning  we  received  a  mail,  for  the  first 
time  in  two  weeks,  and  a  very  large  mail  it  was, 
being  escorted  into  camp  in  a  baggage  wagon. 
I  went  to  work  immediately  to  read  my  pile  of 
papers,  but  have  stopped  in  disgust  as  I  got 
them  mixed  up  somehow  and  found  myself  read- 
ing regimental  autobiographies  over  three  or 
four  times,  getting  a  vague  idea  that  all  the 
Oneida  County  volunteers  had  been  killed, 


138  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

wounded  or  deified  in  McClellan's  army.  But 
all  honor  to  the  soldiers  of  Central  New  York. 
We  received  the  record  of  their  noble  exploits 
in  the  late  battles  with  a  feeling  of  pride,  and 
only  regret  that  we  could  not  have  shared  their 
fortunes  in  the  grand  army  of  McClellan. 

Since  I  last  wrote  we  have  undergone  some 
severe  privations,  though  we  have  been  guilty 
of  no  serious  "breach  of  peace"  under  our 
sweet-tempered  General  McDowell.  The  pros- 
pect of  entrapping  Jackson  sustained  us  on  a 
forced  march  from  Fredericksburg.  At  Front 
Royal  we  were  much  chagrined  to  find  that  we 
had  arrived  too  late,  and  were  booked  for  a 
bivouac  in  a  cold  rain  storm,  without  either 
blankets,  overcoats  or  tents.  Worse  than  all, 
we  in  the  advance  crossed  the  Shenandoah  and 
were  cut  off  from  our  supplies  by  the  destruc- 
tion of  both  bridges,  and  the  fierceness  of  the 
torrent  prevented  all  intercourse;  and  still  the 
rain  kept  falling,  falling,  for  three  days  and 
nights,  and  yet  scarcely  anything  to  eat.  How- 
ever we  not  only  fasted  but  preyed — upon  the 
live  stock  in  the  vicinity,  the  excessive  use  of 
which  has  caused  some  sickness  since.  Finally 
the  storm  ceases,  and  after  various  experiments, 
resulting  in  the  death  of  two  men,  a  rope  ferry 
is  constructed,  and  we  recross  the  river.  It  was 
"sic  transit"  however  with  many  of  us,  though 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  139 

a  few  days'  rest  since  has  brought  the  regiment 
to  its  former  state  of  health  and  buoyancy. 

Our  pickets  took  many  of  Jackson's  stragglers 
prisoners  while  over  the  river,  with  whom  I  had 
a  good  opportunity  to  converse,  as  I  had  also 
with  those  confined  in  the  buildings  in  the  vil- 
lage. They  all  pretend  to  be  sanguine  in  the 
belief  that  the  confederacy  is  sure  to  succeed, 
and  that  the  Northern  army  can  never  entirely 
conquer  Virginia.  They  do  not  appear  to  claim 
that  the  Southern  soldier  is  in  any  way  superior 
to  the  Northerner,  and  the  "  one  Confederate  to 
five  Federal"  idea,  of  which  we  heard  so  much 
at  the  opening  of  the  war,  is  entirely  exploded. 
They  rely,  however,  on  the  dogged  resolution  to 
fight  to  the  last,  their  knowledge  of  the  country 
and  the  mountain  roads,  and  their  superior  ad- 
vantages for  obtaining  and  giving  information  of 
our  movements  which  a  war  in  their  own  coun- 
try affords  them.  I  am  informed  that  the  citi- 
zens boast  of  violating  the  oath  of  allegiance, 
and  regard  it  as  a  standing  joke.  Strange  to 
say,  in  their  devotion  to  treason  the  men  appear 
not  to  "  fear  God  "  nor  the  ladies  to  "  regard 
man."  The  other  day  when  I  went  to  see  the 
captives  in  turn,  I  found  numbers  of  ladies  there 
distributing  food  and  bouquets  among  them, 
and  eyeing  me  askance  with  a  malicious  criti- 
cism that  made  me  feel  much  as  I  did  years  ago, 


140  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

when  I  first  went  into  company  with  a  long-tailed 
coat.  I  was  tempted  to  turn  my  coat  wrong 
side  out,  take  a  chew  of  tobacco,  and  pass  for  a 
"  secesh  "  myself  ;  but  I  didn't — the  pie  was  all 
distributed  there,  anyway. 

I  had  quite  a  little  political  conversation  with 
one  fellow,  a  complete  gentleman,  and  of  much 
intelligence;  yet  even  he  had  some  odd  ideas  of 
the  North,  and  complained  that  the  manufac- 
tures and  railroads  and  internal  improvements 
of  the  loyal  States  were  the  result  of  favor  shown 
them  by  the  Federal  government  to  the  detri- 
ment of  the  South.  I  tried  to  undeceive  him, 
but  unsatisfactorily  to  myself.  The  fact  is,  the 
"Union  feeling  in  the  South,"  and  the  deception 
of  the  masses  by  the  secession  leaders  are  hardly 
worth,  I  think,  the  attention  that  they  elicit 
from  Northern  politicians.  The  bayonet  is  the 
most  successful  persuader.  You  remember  when 
we  were  school  boys  we  could  always  perceive 
much  more  clearly  how  naughty  it  was  to  play 
truant  after  being  soundly  thrashed  for  it. 

The  wounded  from  two  of  Shield's  Brigades 
were  brought  into  Front  Royal  to-day  in  a  long 
train  of  army  wagons.  They  present  a  pitiful 
sight,  but  most  of  them  will  recover.  Though 
jolted  along  over  rough  roads  in  these  heavy 
vehicles,  hardly  a  groan  ever  escapes  their  lips, 
and  they  bear  their  sufferings  with  the  most 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  141 

heroic  fortitude.  But  do  not  believe  all  that  you 
read  of  rebel  barbarities  to  wounded  soldiers. 
Those  of  the  First  Maryland  Regiment  that  we 
found  quartered  in  houses  around  here  tell  no 
such  stories.  In  the  heat  of  action,  when  the 
brain  is  frenzied  with  the  excitement  of  battle, 
these  are  possibilities,  but  when  the  firing  is 
over,  the  soldier,  in  contemplating  a  wounded 
enemy,  is  seldom  governed  by  his  ideas  of  State 
rights  or  the  Missouri  compromise. 

I  wish  we  could  always  have  as  fine  a  mail  as 
that  of  to-day.  I  say  unto  you  all,  write.  Any- 
thing in  the  form  of  a  note  is  acceptable,  and  I 
would  even  read  a-  letter  from  Gerrit  Smith  or 
Giddings,  if  it  was  addressed  to  me  now.  Our 
friends — and  creditors — must  not  wait  for  their 
epistles  to  be  always  promptly  answered,  as 
camp  inconveniences  often  defeat  our  best  in- 
tentions. Not  unfrequently  our  only  means  of 
getting  a  letter  to  the  office  is  through  the  "un- 
derground express,"  superintended  by  Richards, 
the  active  correspondent  of  the  Telegraph.  All 
ye  who  failed  to  "knit  stockings"  for  the  volun- 
teers during  the  winter,  redeem  yourselves  by 
writing  letters  to  them  this  summer. 

ALIQUIS. 

June  i5th,  1862,  writing  from  Centreville,  Vir- 
ginia, to  his  brother  he  says  :  "  I  am  writing  in 


142  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

the  Quartermaster's  office,  as  we  have  formed 
no  regular  camp,  but  are  out  in  the  field  in  the 
sun.  We  have  been  on  the  move  for  three  days, 
marching  about  fifteen  miles  a  day.  It  is  very 
warm,  dusty  and  disagreeable.  It  seems  a  good 
part  of  the  army  is  coming  here,  and  I  expect 
we  shall  have  another  Bull  Run.  We  shall  go 
into  it  with  good  spirits  at  least,  and  God  may 
grant  us  a  victory  the  third  time,  though  the 
enemy  has  doubtless  the  largest  army  again.  I 
am  in  command  and  would  rather  like  a  battle 
in  some  respects  under  the  circumstances.  Still 
it  may  run  along  so  for  weeks  yet." 

"  The  move  for  three  days  "  above  referred  to 
was  from  Front  Royal  to  Centerville,  a  distance 
of  about  forty-five  miles.  Captain  Arrowsmith's 
expectation  of  another  battle  of  Bull  Run  in  this 
vicinity  was  very  soon  to  be  literally  verified. 


ASSISTANT  ADJUTANT-GENERAL. 


JUNE  25th,  1862,  he  writes  from  Manassas 
Junction,  Virginia,  to  his  father  announcing 
an  important  event  in  his  career,  as  follows:  "I 
was  chosen  to-day  by  our  new  Brigadier-General 
Tower,  to  act  as  his  Assistant  Adjutant-General, 
and  have  been  very  busy  with  him  all  the  even- 
ing. I  have  some  prospects  of  being  confirmed 
in  the  position,  which  I  sincerely  hope  for,  as  it 
would  increase  my  pay  considerably,  though  not 
my  rank,  and  also  make  me  a  mounted  officer  ; 
but  it's  all  uncertain  yet.  I  am  well  and  vigor- 
ous." 


A  few  weeks  afterwards,  on  August  iQth,  1862, 
he  received  his  commission,  signed  by  Edwin  M. 
Stanton,  Secretary  of  War,  with  orders  to  report 


144  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

in  person  for  orders  to  Brigadier-General  Z.  B. 
Tower.* 

General  Z.  B.  Tower  was  assigned  to  the  com- 
mand of  the  second  brigade,  second  division, 
third  corps,  of  the  army  of  Virginia,  about  the 
last  of  June,  1862.  General  Ricketts,  the  division 
commander,  recommended  to  General  Tower, 
Captain  Arrowsmith  for  the  position  of  Assistant 
Adjutant-General,  as  an  intelligent,  educated, 
soldierly  officer  of  good  repute  in  his  regiment, 
and  the  best-fitted  person  of  his  age  in  the  bri- 
gade for  this  important  place  on  the  staff.  Upon 
his  appointment  he  became  a  permanent  mem- 
ber of  General  Tower's  military  family,  and  his 
chief  assistant.  Having  served  since  the  begin- 
ning of  the  war,  his  experience  was  very  valuable 
to  him. 

June  28th,  1862,  installed  in  his  new  position, 
he  writes  his  brother  from  Manassas  Junction, 
Virginia  : 

"  I  have  better  conveniences  for  writing  now, 
since  I  have  been  on  the  General's  staff,  as  I 
have  a  large  tent  with  a  desk  and  a  bed  in  it  all 
to  myself.  As  I  mess  with  the  General,  who  is 
quite  an  epicure,  I  live  about  as  well  now  as  I 
ever  did  in  my  life,  and  this  eating  with  silver 
knives  and  forks  scarcely  seems  like  soldiering  at 


*  Appendix,  Note  C. 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  145 

all.  However,  when  we  get  to  marching  it  will 
not  be  so  lovely  again.  I  have  a  horse,  etc.,  fur- 
nished by  the  government,  and  altogether  I  have 
a  pretty  comfortable  time  of  it.  I  don't  know 
how  long  I  shall  act  in  this  capacity,  but  prob- 
ably some  time.  I  had  a  telegraph  dispatch 
this  afternoon  from  Tom,  who  wished  to  meet 
me  in  Washington  this  evening.  It  was  impos- 
sible for  me  to  comply  with  his  request,  as  the 
most  rigid  orders  are  in  force  with  reference  to 
leaves  of  absence."  *  *  *  * 


A  SUMMER  RESORT  ENCAMPMENT. 

A  BOUT  the  middle  of  July  Captain  Arrow- 
^*"  smith  is  with  his  brigade  at  Warrenton, 
near  the  Warrenton  Springs,  which  we  will  learn 
about  in  the  next  letter. 

WARRENTON,  VA.,  July  i4th,  1862. 
To  the  Editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald  : 

During  the  hot  weather,  and  lately,  we  have 
been  sojourning  at  the  celebrated  summer  resort 
of  Warrenton,  occasionally  taking  a  trip  to  the 
Sulphur  Springs  for  the  sake  of  health.  War- 
renton is  decidedly  one  of  the  finest  towns  I 
ever  saw,  with  fine  mansions,  flanked  by  lovely 
gardens,  and  streets  well  shaded.  This  was  a 
favorite  resort  of  Washingtonians  in  the  warm 
weather,  and  the  register-book  of  the  Warren 
Green  House  would  be  a  great  treasure  in  the 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  147 

eyes  of  an  autograph  collector.  Like  all  other 
watering  places,  Warrenton  was  remarkable  for 
the  sparing  manner  in  which  the  frequenters 
thereof  used  water  as  a  beverage.  Here  the  Con- 
gressional Representatives  of  Southern  chivalry 
used  to  assemble,  and  probably  plot  the  destruc- 
tion of  the  Union  over  chivalrous  drinks  of 
whiskey.  From  this  place  did  the  gay  visitors 
start  afternoons  to  go  to  the  Springs  to  taste 
some  of  the  water,  feeling,  at  the  same  time,  with 
remorse,  that  the  habit  of  drinking  water  was 
growing  upon  them,  and  winding  its  coils  around 
them.  The  favorite  mode  of  getting  to  th.e 
Springs  was  in  an  "  extra "  stage,  driven  by 
one  William  Smith,  who,  in  time,  became  better 
known  as  "Extra  Billy  Smith,"  and  drove  him- 
self not  only  into  a  fortune,  but  into  a  political 
station.  Then,  when  he  got  into  the  nice,  big 
house,  with  the  double  iron  fence  in  front  that 
now  graces  Warrenton,  the  sobriquet  stuck  to 
him  still,  as  if  saying  to  the  traveler:  "Billy 
Smiths  may  be  numerous;  but  here,  sir,  is  some- 
thing a  little  extra."  Well,  Billy  is  now  in  Rich- 
mond, helping  to  kill  the  Yankee  invaders;  but 
in  front  of  Billy's  mansion  in  Warrenton  may  be 
seen  a  sentry,  in  blue  uniform,  protecting  Billy's 
property  from  the  inroads  of  the  "mud-sills." 
In  view  of  the  above  service  rendered,  Billy's 
wife  and  daughters  tolerate  the  sentry. 


148  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

General  Tower  has  his  headquarters  at  the 
residence  of  another  Smith  (ordinary  quality), 
who  is  one  of  the  editors  of  the  Richmond 
Enquirer,  and  is  quite  generally  known  through 
Virginia.  Among  some  old  books  and  papers  in 
the  house,  I  find  some  sketches  and  descriptions 
of  persons  and  places  in  the  country,  made  dur- 
ing the  travels  of  one  Mrs.  Anne  Royall,  who, 
notwithstanding  the  disregard  which  she  con- 
stantly shows  to  religion  and  English  grammar, 
gives  some  exceedingly  minute  descriptions.  I 
am  informed  this  female  Willis  once  conducted 
a  sort  of  paper  in  Washington,  and  treated  the 
public  to  accurate  descriptions  of  all  celebrities. 
With  those  who  patronized  her  "all  the  men 
were  brave,  and  all  the  women  were  beautiful  ;  " 
but,  alas,  for  those  who  refused  to  yield  to  the 
blackmail  imposed.  Among  the  families  men- 
tioned in  Warrenton  by  Mrs.  Royall  is  that  of 
the  Lee,  which  being  descended  neither  from 
Pocahontas  nor  Washington,  is,  of  course,  in  the 
lineal  stock  of  "Light  Horse  Harry"  of  the 
Revolution.  The  female  who  now  supports  the 
dignity  of  the  Lee  family  owns  a  farm  which 
supplies  the  soldiers  with  much  fruit  and  forage. 
Altogether,  this  is  a  fine  country  and  provender 
is  abundant ;  but  I  could  have  forgiven  the  na- 
tives for  a  great  deal  of  their  treasonable  con- 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  149 

duct,  if  they  had  only  left  a  little  larger  supply 
of  ice  for  us. 

The  Warren  Green  Hotel  in  the  town  is  now 
taken  for  a  hospital,  for  which  it  is  finely  adapt- 
ed, and  will  afford  good  accommodations  for  the 
sick  of  the  whole  army  here.  This  is  a  step  in 
the  right  direction,  for  so  far  from  being  of  any 
sanitary  use  before  being  taken,  there  had  not 
been  a  bar  properly  kept  in  it  for  months.  The 
regiments  around  here  are  in  good  state  gener- 
ally speaking  as  regards  health,  the  Twenty- 
sixth  New  York  especially.  After  a  march,  or  a 
change  of  location  and  water,  a  great  many  will 
always  be  a  little  unwell,  but  no  serious  epidem- 
ics are  prevailing.  Major  Jennings  has  been 
quite  unwell  for  the  last  few  days,  but  is  steadily 
recovering. 

Our  mails  still  come  in  a  very  irregular  man- 
ner, but  I  assure  you  they  are  eagerly  received. 
There  seems  but  very  little  system  and  certainty 
in  the  matter,  and  I  would  caution  all  those 
who  are  indebted  to  me  to  refrain  from  sending 
money  to  me  in  any  very  large  sum  through 
this  medium.  A  breach  of  this  rigid  rule  might 
occasion  it  to  come  into  the  hands  of  some  un- 
principled robber  who  would  squander  it  in  an 
unprofitable  manner. 

We  quite  frequently  see  Richmond  papers  in 
town,  and  it  is  strongly  suspected  that  a  regular 


150  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

mail  is  received  and  sent  here.  It  is  possible  it 
may  be  so,  as  there  has  been  no  severity  shown 
as  yet  by  the  government  towards  spies,  and 
they  run  but  little  risk.  This  is  really  the  most 
civil  war  ever  heard  of.  Out  at  Front  Royal, 
Bell  Boyd  boasts  and  jokes  of  her  participation 
in  Colonel  Kennedy's  defeat  in  the  very  face  of 
the  Generals,  and  laughs  pleasantly  at  the  idea 
of  being  arrested.  To  check  this  system  of 
espionage  some  one  should  be  hung — some  guilty 
person  should  be  the  example  if  possible  ;  but 
one  thing  is  certain,  some  one  should  be  pendant 
for  the  good  of  the  Union. 

I  have  just  received,  by  the  way,  the  Utica 
papers,  and  get  much  more  warlike  enthusiasm 
from  reading  of  the  determination  of  Central 
New  York  to  send  still  more  troops  into  the 
service  than  in  witnessing  the  dull  routine  of 
this  army  of  occupation.  It  seems  as  though  the 
strong  and  persevering  effort  made  in  Utica  can 
not  be  a  failure,  with  such  a  man  proposed  for 
commander  as  Captain  Pease. 

No  man  can  be  without  the  gratitude  of  his 
fellows  that  volunteers  at  the  present  crisis.  In 
the  army  now  in  the  field  doubtless  some  have 
enlisted  for  ambition,  for  adventure,  for  money, 
some  perhaps  because  they  didn't  get  married 
when  they  wanted  to,  and  some  because  they 
did  ;  but  the  great  novelty  of  the  war  is  now 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  151 

over,  .and  no  one  can  doubt,  I  think,  the  motives 
of  those  who  will  meet  the  last  earnest  call  for 
troops,  to  fill  up  the  gaps  in  the  army  made  by 
disease  and  by  the  bullet. 

I  know  not  what  will  be  done  with  us  here, 
but  suppose  we  shall  push  on  towards  Gordons- 
ville.  Generals  Banks  and  Sigel  were  both  in 
Warrenton  a  few  nights  ago.  McDowell  I  have 
not  seen  for  weeks,  and  I  guess  that  it  is  only 
at  "  Willard's  "  that  he  is  visible  to  the  naked 
eye.  Nor  has  Pope  yet  made  his  appearance. 
General  Ricketts  and  General  Tower  are,  how- 
ever, constantly  with  their  commands,  and  hard 
at  work  keeping  everything  in  readiness  for 
marching  orders.  One  hundred  and  forty  rounds 
of  cartridges  are  always  kept  on  hand,  and  the 
baggage  trains  in  order,  but  still  we  are  in  statu 
quo,  and  I  might  add  ante  bellum. 

ALIQUIS. 


NEW  DUTIES. 


T^ROM  Waterloo,  Virginia,  August  4th,  1862, 
in    a    letter   to   his   brother   Stephen,    he 
writes  : 

"  I  believe  I  must  tell  you  something  of  the  life 
and  duties  of  an  Assistant  Adjutant-General  (an 
awkward  title,  by  the  way).  Well,  I  have  to  issue 
and  keep  on  file  all  general  and  special  orders 
and  circulars,  transact  all  the  business  corre- 
spondence of  the  General  and  keep  on  file  all 
letters  received  and  sent,  make  out  all  the  week- 
ly and  monthly  returns  of  the  brigade,  make 
all  details,  keep  the  countersigns  and  signals  in 
my  possession  and  issue  them  daily  on  the  field, 
act  as  aid-de-camp  to  the  General,  transmit  or- 
ders and  direct  the  columns.  Three  or  four 
hours'  work  in  the  day,  though,  generally  does 
all  my  business,  though  it's  quite  confining.  I 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  153 

have  bought  a  magnificent  horse,  for  which  I've 
paid  what  will  appear  a  pretty  steep  price  to 
you,  two  hundred  dollars.  However,  I  would 
not  sell  him  for  that  now.  He  is  a  large  sorrel 
horse,  rather  showy,  a  good  jumper,  eight  years 
old  and  sound.  I've  now  had  him  about  a 
month.  By  the  way,  I  have  a  clerk  allowed  me, 
and  an  orderly  to  take  care  of  my  horse,  besides 
my  waiter,  whom  (the  latter)  I  have  to  pay  my- 
self, as  usual.  So  I've  told  you  now  pretty  much 
all  about  my  present  status.  I  was  offered,  not 
long  since,  a  lieutenant-colonelcy  in  one  of  the 
New  York  regiments,  that  has  not  yet  scarcely 
begun  to  make  any  show,  but  I  refused  it,  as  I 
saw  they  would  expect  me  to  work  about  and 
spend  money  for  the  rest;  and  then,  I  reflected, 
that  being  green  the  regiment  would  always  be 
kept  in  the  background,  which  I'm  tired  of.  I'm 
well,  have  plenty  to  eat,  and  generally  a  good 
place  to  sleep,  which  is  saying  considerable  for 
a  soldier.  I  wish  I  could  be  home  awhile  in  the 
market  season,  though.  We  move  in  the  night, 
I'm  told.  Good  night !  " 

"  P.  S. — Marching  orders  come." 


CEDAR  MOUNTAIN. 


battle  of  Cedar  Mountain  was  fought  on 
the  ninth  of  August,  1862.  It  was  Banks 
against  Ewell,  each  with  about  eight  thousand 
men.  For  awhile  the  fight  was  in  favor  of  the 
national  troops,  but  rebel  reinforcements  coming 
up,  Banks  retreated  before  the  enemy.  Pope 
was  only  a  few  miles  away;  he  hurried  up  and 
checked  the  pursuit.  Arrowsmith  was  with 
Ricketts's  division  of  Pope's  forces.  His  brigade 
saw  the  main  part  of  the  fight,  but  was  engaged 
only  in  the  last  of  it.  Captain  Arrowsmith  ac- 
quitted himself  so  well  as  to  earn  favor  from 
General  Tower.  He  thus  speaks  of  the  battle 
in  a  letter  to  his  brother  from  Mitchell  Station, 
dated  August  i7th,  1862:  "Our  brigade  was 
not  in  the  main  part  of  the  fight  at  all,  though 
we  had  a  good  sight  of  it.  We  were  on  the 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  155 

right  of  Ricketts's  division,  which  you  know 
came  up  in  time  to  check  the  rebels  after  they 
had  begun  to  drive  Banks.  When  we  came  on 
the  ground,  Banks's  exhausted  troops  passed  to 
the  rear  of  us  and  all  was  quiet  for  some  time. 
About  midnight  they  came  up  about  two  or  three 
hundred  yards  from  us  and  commenced  shelling 
us.  Two  of  our  batteries  commenced  at  them 
so  sharply  that  in  about  half  an  hour  they  com- 
pletely silenced  them,  having  killed  nearly  all 
their  horses  and  made  great  havoc  generally. 
This  was  all  of  the  fight  that  we  were  really  in. 
Our  division  lost  one  hundred  and  six,  killed  and 
wounded.  Since  the  battle  General  Tower  has 
nominated  me  to  the  Secretary  of  War  for  con- 
firmation in  my  position,  at  which  I  am  much 
delighted.  No  time  to  write  more.  Good-by  !  " 


SECOND  BULL  RUN. 


"ENGAGEMENTS  at  Rappahannock,  Thor- 
•^  oughfare  Gap  and  Second  Bull  Run  (or 
Groveton)  quickly  followed.  The  two  former 
were  essentially  artillery  engagements.  In  the 
last-named  battle  Captain  Arrowsmith  was  in  the 
thickest  of  the  fight,  and  regardless  of  danger, 
discharged  his  duties  with  great  efficiency.  His 
brigade  was  the  first  thrown  into  the  action  by 
General  Ricketts.  General  Towejr  was  in  com- 
mand and  led  the  advance.  Fairly  enveloped 
by  the  advancing  enemy,  the  loss  of  men  was 
very  severe,  infantry  upon  three  sides  of  them 
pouring  in  its  deadly  volleys,  and  artillery  firing 
upon  them  from  a  hill  close  by.  Captain  Ar- 
rowsmith's  duties  covered  a  large  area,  trans- 
mitting orders  from  one  point  to  another,  and 
directing  columns.  His  slouch  hat,  straight 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  157 

black  hair,  swarthy  face  and  erect  figure  made 
him  a  conspicuous  object,  dashing  on  horseback 
in  every  direction,  inspiring  by  his  example  the 
courage  of  the  Union  soldiers  and  a  target  for 
the  enemy's  sharpshooters.  General  Tower  fell 
wounded  seriously  while  gallantly  leading  his 
brigade.  "  Captain  George  Arrowsmith,"  wrote 
a  correspondent  of  the  New  York  Tribune,  "  for- 
merly of  the  Twenty-sixth  New  York,  but  pro- 
moted by  General  Tower  as  Assistant  Adjutant- 
General  of  his  brigade  for  gallantry,  showed 
great  bravery  on  the  field.  His  praise  is  in  the 
mouth  of  every  one.  At  one  time  he  is  said  to 
have  taken  General  Schenck  for  a  major,  and  im- 
mediately rode  up  and  led  two  regiments  into 
the  fight,  amid  a  shower  of  grape  and  canister." 
Fessendon,  a  brother  officer  on  General  Tower's 
staff,  was  killed.  The  loss  of  the  brigade  was 
terribly  severe.  Captain  Arrowsmith's  escape 
without  a  wound  was  almost  miraculous.  One 
bullet  passed  through  his  hair,  another  struck  his 
sword  scabbard,  and  a  third  had  buried  itself  in 
the  folds  of  his  blanket,  which  he  discovered  at 
the  close  of  the  fight.  It  was  here  he  won  for 
himself  the  sobriquet  of  "the  young  lion."  A 
hastily  written  letter  to  his  father  dated  Septem- 
ber ist,  1862,  from  Centreville,  Virginia,  briefly 
refers  to  the  battle.  "  Our  brigade  got  into  a 
terrible  fight  in  the  battle  of  the  day  before  yes- 


158  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

terday.  We  found  ourselves  in  a  trap  where 
there  was  infantry  on  three  sides  and  artillery 
firing  on  us  from  a  hill.  The  brigade  has  lost  be- 
tween five  hundred  and  one  thousand  men.  I 
write  this  to  inform  you  that  I'm  not  hurt.  Gen- 
eral Tower  was  wounded  and  was  sent  to  Wash- 
ington yesterday.  Fessendon,  of  the  staff,  was 
shot  dead.  The  closest  shave  I  made  was  a  bul- 
let through  my  hair,  though  one  hit  my  sword 
scabbard,  and  when  I  lay  down  for  the  night,  a 
ball  dropped  out  of  my  blanket,  that  I  had  kept 
folded  on  the  front  of  my  saddle.  Will  never 
get  in  a  worse  place.  Very  busy." 

After  three  weeks  of  almost  incessant  fighting 
with  the  army  of  General  Pope,  marching  and 
countermarching  from  Cedar  Mountain  back 
across  the  Rappahannock.,  thence  to  Thorough- 
fare Gap,  thence  to  Manassas  ;  back  to  Cen- 
treville,  and  thence  to  Chantilly,  where  the  gal- 
lant Kearney  of  New  Jersey  fell,  his  physical 
powers  were  reduced  to  a  degree  that  he  was 
unable  to  withstand  a  shock  sustained  by  a  fall 
of  his  horse,  and  upon  the  recommendation  of 
General  Tower,  who  lay  seriously  wounded  in 
Washington,  he  accepted  a  leave  of  absence  for 
the  purpose  of  recruiting  his  weakened  frame. 

The  following  is  the  letter  of  General  Tower, 
requesting  a  furlough  for  Captain  Arrovvsmith  : 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  159 

WASHINGTON,  September  i5th,  1862. 
To  General  Cullom  : 

If  you  can  do  so  consistently  I  wish  you  would 
give  my  Adjutant-General  a  leave  to  go  home. 
I  have  no  doubt  that  it  will  hasten  his  recovery 
and  return  to  duty.  He  is  an  officer  of  the  true 
stamp  and  mettle  and  will  doubtless  return  the 
instant  he  is  able  to  resume  his  duties.  For  the 
past  two  months  he  has  continued  on  duty  when 
most  officers  would  have  reported  sick,  and  has 
done  active  field  duty  when  it  was  very  painful 
for  him  to  sit  upon  his  horse,  so  anxious  was  he 
to  be  at  his  post  of  duty  and  danger.  Now  it  is 
best  that  he  should  try  to  effect  his  recovery  be- 
fore the  injury  becomes  more  difficult  to  cure. 
I  therefore  ask  this  indulgence  for  him. 

With  respect,  your  most  obedient, 

Z.  B.  TOWER, 

Brig.  Gen.  Bvt. 

Owing  to  his  wounds,  General  Tower  was 
compelled  to  give  up  the  command  of  the  Second 
Brigade,  which  ended  Captain  Arrowsmith's 
service  upon  his  staff. 

Under  date  of  September  4th,  1862,  we  find 
Captain  Arrowsmith  at  Brown's  Hotel  in  Wash- 
ington, from  which  place  he  addresses  his  brother 
Stephen,  as  follows  :  "  I  wrote  a  day  or  two  ago 
informing  you  that  I  was  safe,  but  as  I  had  to 


160  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

send  it  by  the  '  underground  railroad,' to  avoid 
Halleck's  order,  I  feared  lest  possibly  it  might 
be  intercepted.  I  have  been  in  the  battles  of 
Rappahannock,  Thoroughfare  Gap,  and  Satur- 
day's battle  of  Bull  Run.  In  the  latter  our  bri- 
gade, through  a  blunder,  was  badly  cut  to  pieces. 
General  Tower  was  badly  wounded,  and  is  now 
at  Willard's.  Fessendon  was  killed.  I  escaped 
unhurt,  but  was  reported  to  be  killed,  and  my 
Washington  friends  are  all  much  surprised  to 
see  me.  I  woke  up  the  morning  after  the  fight 
and  found  myself  quite  a  hero  on  a  small  scale. 
Colonel  Christian  did  not  go  into  the  fight. 
Poor  Leonard,  second  lieutenant  of  my  old  com- 
pany, was  shot  dead.  Our  brigade  is  now  over 
the  other  side  of  Munsen's  hill,  about  five  miles 
from  Washington.  I  am  staying  in  Washington 
a  day  or  two  by  the  doctor's  advice,  to  cure  up  a 
slight  injury  I  received  from  my  horse  falling  on 
me  during  the  battle.  Tell  me,  are  you  drafted  ? 
Tom  is  well.  I  have  had  no  mail  for  about  two 
weeks,  and  I  have  a  lot  of  letters  somewhere,  I 
expect.  When  I  came  into  town  this  morning, 
I  had  not  changed  my  clothes  in  three  weeks, 
and  was  as  ragged  and  dirty  as  a  beggar.  For- 
tunately, I  had  money  enough  to  make  a  trans- 
formation. My  love  to  all." 


TRIBUTE   FROM  GENERAL  TOWER. 

/^ENERAL  TOWER  is  still  living,  residing 
^*  at  Cohassettj  Mass.,  and  in  a  kindly  letter 
of  recent  date  to  Stephen  V.  Arrowsmith,  he 
thus  refers  to  the  service  of  Captain  Arrowsmith 
upon  his  staff:  "During  the  two  months  that 
the  brigade  was  under  my  command,  whether  in 
camp,  on  the  march  or  engaged  in  battle,  Cap- 
tain Arrowsmith,  with  professional  pride  and 
untiring  devotion,  met  all  the  requirements  of 
his  position  as  Assistant  Adjutant-General,  to 
my  entire  satisfaction.  Now,  after  the  lapse  of 
so  many  years,  I  am  glad  to  have  the  oppor- 
tunity to  bear  testimony  to  his  marked  soldierly 
qualities,  his  coolness,  self-command  and  gal- 
lantry of  action,  which  made  him  one  of  the 
most  promising  of  the  young  officers  of  my 
command.  General  Pope's  campaign  involved 


162  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

the  advance  of  his  army  to  the  Rapidan  in  the 
vicinity  of  which,  after  the  battle  of  Cedar 
Mountain,  its  several  corps  were  concentrated — 
the  subsequent  falling  back  north  of  the  Rappa- 
hannock  before  General  Lee's  advance — holding 
that  river  as  a  line  of  defence  beyond  Waterloo 
bridge  for  many  days,  thus  delaying  the  enemy's 
progress  and  giving  time  for  a  portion  of  the 
Peninsula  forces  to  unite  with  General  Pope's 
army — the  affairs  of  Bristoe  Station  and  Thor- 
oughfare Gap,  the  battles  of  August  29th  and 
3oth  at  Groveton,  and  the  partial  engagement 
of  September  ist  at  Chantilly  —  the  last  two 
weeks  of  this  campaign,  with  its  marches  and 
countermarches  by  day  and  night,  through  rain 
and  over  mud  roads,  or  under  the  intense  heat  of 
an  August  sun,  in  a  malarious  district  and  with 
frequent  conflicts  with  the  enemy,  were  a  severe 
test  of  the  physical  endurance  of  the  command 
and  rapidly  diminished  its  numbers  by  exhaus- 
tion and  disease,  incident  to  overwork  and  ex- 
posure. Such  a  campaign  might  well  shake  the 
resolution  of  soldiers,  unaccustomed  by  long  ser- 
vice to  like  hardships,  so  that  those  who  stood 
bravely  to  their  colors  from  the  beginning  to  the 
end  of  the  campaign,  deserve  and  should  receive 
the  highest  commendation  for  their  fortitude  and 
courage,  though  they  were  eventually  forced 


LIEUTENANT-COLOXEL  ARROWSJHTH.  163 

back,  overmatched  by  an  enemy  elated  by  recent 
successes  on  another  field. 

"  It  is  my  recollection  that  Captain  Arrow- 
smith  throughout  these  trying  services  never 
yielded  to  overwork  of  any  kind,  and  was  never 
absent  for  a  day  from  his  post  of  duty,  but  was 
actively  efficient  unto  the  end,  and  on  every  bat- 
tle field  he  evinced  the  cool  gallantry  to  which 
I  have  already  given  my  testimony. 

"  Having  been  severely  wounded  in  the  battle 
of  August  3oth,  I  was  compelled  to  give  up  the 
command  of  the  Second  Brigade  and  part  with 
my  staff  officers,  to  whom  I  had  become  much 
attached  during  their  short  but  eventful  service 
and  association  with  me.  Not  one  of  those 
three  officers  who  were  so  constantly  by  my  side 
during  the  campaign,  and  all  sat  at  the  same 
table  with  me,  survived  the  war.  The  brigade 
sergeant,  Abraham  Cox,  died  at  Lookout  Mount- 
ain ;  Lieutenant  Samuel  Fessendon,  my  aid,  a 
gallant  youth,  fell  mortally  wounded  in  the  bat- 
tle of  Groveton;  and  your  brother,  having  served 
on  many  battle  fields,  was  killed  at  Gettysburg. 
I  heard  of  his  death  with  pain  and  sorrow,  for 
he  was  a  valued  friend,  a  man  of  worth  and  a 
sterling  soldier.  I  am,  very  truly  yours, 

"Z.  B  TOWER, 

"Bvt.  Maj.  Geril,   U.  S.  Army." 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL. 


TN  JUNE,  1862,  Melville  D.  Landon  (Eli  Per- 
kins),  a  Washington  correspondent  of  the 
press,  wrote  to  State  Senator  John  J.  Foote,  a 
leading  Republican  of  Hamilton,  New  York, 
suggesting  Captain  Arrowsmith  for  promotion 
to  a  field  office  in  a  New  York  regiment  then 
about  to  be  organized.  Just  prior  to  the  out- 
break of  the  rebellion  Senator  Foote's  mind  had 
not  been  free  from  prejudice  toward  Arrow- 
smith,  due  perhaps  to  his  youthful  partisanship 
as  manifested  by  racy  communications  to  the 
local  Democratic  paper  ;  but  these  prejudices, 
Senator  Foote  acknowledged  in  his  reply  to  Mr. 
Landon,  were  dispelled  by  Arrowsmith's  manly 
and  patriotic  course  at  the  outbreak  of  the  war, 
when  he  came  out  boldly  for  his  country  and 
enlisted  in  its  service,  while  very  many  of  his 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  165 

party  were  semi-secessionists.  This  letter  is  re- 
plete with  the  evidences  of  kind  feeling.  It 
states  that  Captain  Arrowsmith  "  is  a  good  offi- 
cer in  every  respect,"  "a  brave  and  loyal  man." 
"  You  may  do  as  you  think  best  in  regard  to  ex- 
pressing to  him  my  opinion.  If  I  can  help  him 
at  any  time  it  will  afford  me  great  pleasure  to 
do  so,  for  two  reasons.  The  first  because  I  con- 
sider him  worthy,  and  secondly,  because  it 
would  afford  me  an  opportunity  to  demonstrate 
my  regard  for  him."  This  letter  was  forwarded 
by  Mr.  Landon  to  Captain  Arrowsmith,  with  a 
request  that  he  write  to  Senator  Foote.  Cap- 
tain Arrowsmith  did  so  and  there  followed  cor- 
respondence between  them  which  shows  that 
notwithstanding  past  differences,  Senator  Foote 
had  come  to  entertain  towards  Captain  Arrow- 
smith  a  very  kindly  feeling  and  a  high  regard. 
The  Senator  answers  him  that  he  is  very  grate- 
ful for  the  opportunity  offered  for  mutual  ex- 
planations, and  adds  :  "  If  my  feeling  of  dis- 
like for  you  had  not  been  dissipated  while  we 
were  at  Mr.  Greenley's  (a  boarding-house  at 
Hamilton),  your  noble  course  at  the  breaking 
out  of  the  war  was  such  as  would  have  dispelled 
all  such  feelings.  I  take  pride  in  the  fact  that  I 
was  first  to  suggest  you  for  captain,  and  I  have 
never  seen  reason  to  regret  it.  You  at  once 
rose  above  party  feeling  that  existed  at  that  time, 


166  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

and  consecrated  yourself  to  the  service  of  your 
country,  and  ever  since  I  have  been  anxious  for 
your  promotion."  Senator  Foote  then  refers  to 
the  fact  that  a  movement  has  commenced  in  his 
senatorial  district,  comprising  the  counties  of 
Madison  and  Cortland,  for  the  organization  of 
a  regiment  to  help  make  up  the  new  levy,  and 
that  he  had  suggested  his  name  for  Colonel  or 
Lieutenant-Colonel;  and  he  adds:  "It  takes 
well,  but  there  is  a  difficulty  to  be  encountered. 
Professor  Brown,  of  Madison  University,  wants 
a  position  as  a  field  officer,  and  it  would  be  im- 
possible to  get  a  place  for  both,  as  both  would 
be  regarded  as  hailing  from  Hamilton."  Pro- 
fessor Brown  was  a  brilliant  scholar,  well  known 
in  Madison  county  and  had  many  friends  ;  he 
was  a  man  of  energetic  character,  full  of  patri- 
otic zeal,  and  had  devoted  himself  industriously 
to  the  work  of  soliciting  recruits  for  the  new 
regiment,  addressing  public  meetings  every 
night  throughout  the  district.  He  was  princi- 
pal of  the  Grammar  School  connected  with  the 
University,  and  Arrowsmith  had  been  associated 
with  him,  first  as  pupil  and  then  as  his  assistant. 
Their  personal  relations  were  of  the  most  friend- 
ly character  and  there  could  be  no  rivalry  be- 
tween them  There  was  mutual  correspondence, 
which  resulted  in  Captain  Arrowsmith  positive- 
ly refusing  to  accept  the  colonelcy  of  a  regi- 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  167 

ment  over  Brown,  his  old  friend  and  his  senior 
in  years.  By  the  latter  part  of  August,  Brown 
had  succeeded  in  enlisting  eight  hundred  men 
for  his  regiment,  and  Jiis  appointment  to  the 
Colonelcy  was  assured.  There  was  much  rivalry 
between  the  counties  comprising  the  district  for 
the  honor  of  filling  the  other  regimental  offices. 
Senator  Foote  was  one  of  the  State  Senatorial 
Committee  for  the  organization  of  regiments  in 
his  district,  which  gave  him  considerable  influ- 
ence both  at  home  and  with  Governor  Morgan, 
who  was  the  appointing  power.  He  arranged  a 
plan  by  which  the  objection  to  appointing  the 
two  highest  regimental  officers  from  the  same 
place  lost  its  force.  This  plan  contemplated  re- 
serving the  office  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  to  be 
filled  by  a  man  of  experience  from  the  army. 
Then,  instead  of  dividing  the  other  regimental 
offices  equally  between  Madison  and  Cortland 
Counties,  he  would  magnanimously  grant  to 
Cortland  whatever  it  asked.  With  this  arrange- 
ment in  view,  an  invitation  was  extended  to  the 
committee  from  Cortland  County  to  meet  Sena- 
tor Foote  at  his  office  in  Hamilton  the  evening 
of  August  23d,  1862.  Judge  Mason  and  Pro- 
fessor Brown  were  also  present  by  invitation. 
The  proposition  was  made  by  Senator  Foote  in 
accordance  with  the  plan  stated.  It  was  har- 
moniously accepted.  The  office  of  Lieutenant- 


168  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

Colonel  was  to  be  left  vacant  and  to  be  filled  from 
the  army.  This  being  settled,  Senator  Foote 
then  presented  the  name  of  Captain  Arrowsmith 
as  an  experienced  officer  in  the  army,  and  a 
native  and  resident  of  New  Jersey,  although  a 
graduate  of  Madison  University  and  a  law  stu- 
dent with  Judge  Mason  in  Hamilton  up  to  the 
time  of  his  enlistment.  Senator  Foote  wrote, 
"It  took  first-rate."  He  then  called  on  Judge 
Mason  for  an  expression  of  his  views,  which 
the  Judge  of  course  fully  gave,  accompanied  by 
a  reading  of  recommendations  from  the  army. 
Colonel  Brown  was  on  hand,  who  heartily  sec- 
onded the  proposition. 

Thus,  by  the  direction  of  Senator  Foote,  it 
was  fully  arranged  to  organize  the  One  Hundred 
and  Fifty-seventh  Regiment,  New  York  State 
Volunteers,  with  a  vacancy  in  the  office  of  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel, and  with  the  understanding  that 
an  invitation  was  then  to  be  given  to  Captain 
Arrowsmith  to  accept  the  position.  There  were 
some  underhanded  attempts  afterwards  at  Al- 
bany to  get  another  person  appointed,  but  this 
was  readily  defeated  by  Senator  Foote  and  Judge 
Mason  through  Governor  Morgan. 

As  soon  as  it  was  known  that  Captain  Arrow- 
smith  was  to  be  the  Lieutenant-Colonel  and 
Professor  Brown  the  Colonel,  there  was  much 
dissatisfaction  expressed  in  the  district  because 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  169 

Arrowsmith  could  not  be  Colonel.  There  was 
the  highest  respect  for  both,  but  Arrowsmith 
had  earned  a  reputation  in  the  field  while  Brown 
was  inexperienced.  Senator  Foote  writing  to 
Captain  Arrowsmith  stated  that  he  "  saw  Gov- 
ernor Morgan  and  he  would  have  given  you  a 
commission  as  Colonel  of  the  regiment  if  I  had 
said  so,  but  you  were  not  here  to  consult  and  so 
I  did  not  say  the  word."  Judge  Mason  in  a 
letter  written  to  Captain  Arrowsmith's  father 
stated,  "  He  should  have  been  appointed  the 
Colonel,  and  so  Governor  Morgan  said,  after  he 
read  the  high  testimonials  from  the  army,  but 
George  was  in  the  field  and  the  regiment  was 
half  filled,  and  they  must  have  a  Colonel  then."* 
Senator  Foote  now,  under  date  of  September 
2zd,  1862,  wrote  to  Captain  Arrowsmith  telling 
him  all  that  had  been  done,  and  urging  him  to 
accept  the  position.  Arrowsmith  had  previously 
written  him  referring  to  the  order  of  the  War 
Department  forbidding  army  officers  leaving 
their  positions  for  the  purpose  of  accepting 
offices  in  new  regiments.  Senator  Foote  wrote 
in  reply  :  "  I  was  aware  of  this  and  so  was 
Governor  Morgan,  and  he  mentioned  it  as  an 
objection,  but  we  pressed  you  over  that,  believ- 
ing you  would  manage  some  way  to  get  excused 


*  Appendix,  Note  D. 


170  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

so  as  to  accept  the  place.  We  thought  that  if 
they  would  not  allow  you  to  leave  the  field  now, 
that  you  would  be  allowed  to  do  so  as  soon  as 
this  regiment  got  away  and  in  the  army.  The 
fact  is,  we  have  not  allowed  any  obstacle  to  get 
into  your  way.  Now  I  hope  you  will  not  relin- 
quish the  idea  of  accepting  this  post." 

Events  show  that  he  did  accept  it,  though  he 
was  being  urged  about  the  same  time  for  the 
colonelcy  of  the  Twenty-sixth  New  York  Volun- 
teers, in  place  of  Colonel  Christian,  who  had  re- 
signed. Adjutant  Bacon  was  one  of  his  earnest 
advocates  for  the  last-named  place  ;  and  Gover- 
nor Parker  of  New  Jersey,  urged  by  prominent 
citizens  of  that  State,  had  given  assurances  that 
he  would  appoint  him  to  the  colonelcy  of  a  New 
Jersey  regiment  when  a  favorable  opportunity 
offered. 

Enough  is  written  to  show  that  the  Lieutenant- 
Colonelcy  came  to  Captain  Arrowsmith  upon  the 
merit  of  his  reputation  as  a  man  and  a  soldier, 
without  his  leaving  the  field,  and  without  an 
effort  in  his  own  behalf.  He  was  commissioned 
by  Governor  Morgan  of  New  York,  September 
i6th,  1862,  with  rank  from  August  23d,  1862. 

On  the  twenty -fifth  of  September  the  One 
Hundred  and  Fifty-seventh  Regiment  left  New 
York  for  its  encampment  at  Centreville,  Virginia, 
near  Washington. 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  171 

On  the  twenty-sixth  of  October  following,  we 
find  Lieutenant-Colonel  Arrowsmith  at  Wash- 
ington, where  he  is  waiting  for  the  acceptance 
of  his  resignation  as  Assistant  Adjutant-General, 
almost  well  and  quite  anxious  to  get  out  with  the 
regiment.  "Adjutant  Bacon,"  he  writes,  "has 
returned  from  Utica  and  is  here  at  Brown's 
Hotel.  He  says  his  father  is.  urging  my  claims 
with  Governor  Morgan  as  Colonel  of  the  Twenty- 
sixth,  though  I'm  quite  indifferent  whether  he 
succeeds  or  not,  as  the  regiment's  time  will  be 
out  next  May." 

November  3d,  1862,  George  writes  his  brother 
Stephen  from  Washington.  *  *  *  *  "  I  find 
my  regiment  has  got  up  to  their  ears  among  the 
Dutchmen,  in  Sigel's  corps,  Carl  Schurtz's  divi- 
sion, and  Colonel  Schimmelfenning's  (or  some 
such  name)  brigade.  I  don't  particularly  fancy 
this  arrangement  altogether.  I  havn't  seen  the 
Twenty-ninth  yet,  as  it  requires  quite  a  long 
horseback  ride  to  do  it." 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-seventh  Regi- 
ment appears  to  have  been  the  only  "  Yankee 
Regiment,"  as  it  was  called,  in  the  division,  the 
entire  corps  being  largely  made  up  of  Germans 
and  known  as  the  German  corps.  It  was  a  pe- 
culiar position.  An  American  regiment  serving 
its  country  in  a  German  army.  If  it  achieved 
victory,  to  the  Germans  belonged  the  glory.  If 


172  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

it  suffered  defeat  there  was  precious  little  con- 
solation in  the  thought  that  the  shame  was  the 
Germans.  If  George  was  not  particularly 
pleased  with  this  assignment  of  his  regiment,  as 
several  sportive  references  to  the  matter  in  his 
correspondence  would  seem  to  indicate,  it  was 
perfectly  natural.  But  he  found  no  fault  with 
it.  He  accepted  the  situation  as  one  of  the  acci- 
dents of  war,  and  here  as  elsewhere  he  knew 
only  his  duty  as  a  soldier. 


A   PLEASING  RECEPTION. 

T  IEUTENANT-COLONEL  Arrowsmith  had 
not  yet  seen  the  regiment  of  which  he  was 
Lieutenant-Colonel.  It  had  now  been  in  camp 
nearly  two  months,  and  there  began  to  be  a  good 
deal  of  anxiety  manifested  as  to  when  their 
Lieutenant-Colonel  was  coming,  and  what  he 
was  like.  They  knew  him  by  reputation  as  a 
man  who  had  had  experience  in  the  army  and 
had  been  under  fire.  This  was  more  than  could 
be  said  of  anybody  else  in  the  regiment,  and  of 
course  there  was  curiosity  to  meet  him  and  have 
him  with  them.  About  the  middle  of  November 
he  joined  the  regiment  at  New  Baltimore. 

A  writer  in  the  Canastota  Herald  of  the  date 
of  July  i8th,  1875,  thus  describes  the  impression 
made  by  the  young  officer  as  he  approached  the 
regiment  for  the  first  time  :  "  What  a  scanning 


174  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

that  young,  black-eyed,  black-haired  officer  in 
slouched  hat  received  as  he  came  down  the  hill 
at  New  Baltimore  to  attend  the  dress  parade. 
It  was  early  in  November,  when  the  pinching 
frosts  and  chilling  winds  of  Dixey  were  telling 
in  dampening  effect  upon  the  mirth  and  romance 
of  camp  life.  '  Is  that  our  Lieutenant-Colonel  ?' 
says  one,  after  the  parade  was  dismissed.  '  He 
does  look  like  a  bully  boy,"  says  another.  'See 
that  long  cavalry  sword  he  carries  ;  that  looks 
as  though  it  had  seen  service,'  remarks  another. 
And  so  was  Colonel  Arrowsmith  discussed,  but 
always  with  a  decided  bias  in  his  favor.  For 
who  could  see  aught  but  welcome  in  his  pleas- 
ant face,  and  deny  him  the  same  welcome  from 
a  thousand  hearts. 

"  It  was  at  once  apparent  to  the  eyes  of  his 
men  that  Colonel  Brown  had  found  in  Colonel 
Arrowsmith  a  counsellor  as  well  as  a  companion 
in  arms  ;  while  Colonel  Arrowsmith,  from  his 
long  experience  in  active  service,  seemed  to  re- 
ciprocate such  consideration  by  becoming  mod- 
esty towards  his  superior.  The  men,  too,  soon 
found  that  instead  of  another  'high  dig'  to  lift 
their  hats  to  simply,  a  man  had  come  who 
sought  only  their  best  interests  and  advancement 
in  the  ways  of  a  soldier,  for  he  seemed  to  feel 
that  his  surest  way  to  honor  lay  in  a  proper  at- 
tention to  the  general  welfare  of  the  men  of  his 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  175 

regiment.  On  the  march,  if  he  held  the  com- 
mand, he  sought  the  easiest  part  of  the  road, 
found  the  best  water  and  the  coolest  shade  pos- 
sible for  them  ;  when  a  sharp  bend  in  the  route 
occurred  he  cut  across  lots  to  save  distance, 
and  rested  just  as  long  and  often  as  allowed  by 
his  superiors.  Who  could  not  like  such  a  man  ? 
In  camp,  when  on  drill  under  the  Lieutenant- 
Colonel,  the  men  under  such  guidance  moved 
with  vigor  and  alacrity,  and  in  excellent  trim  re- 
turned to  their  quarters  thankful  for  the  experi- 
ence and  skill  of  such  an  able  officer." 

November  i6th,  1862,  he  writes  to  his  brother 
Stephen :  *  *  *  *  "  I've  rather  enjoyed 
starting  campaigning  again,  so  far.  General 
Schurtz  seems  to  be  a  very  fine,  affable  man,  and 
hardly  a  foreigner,  but  our  brigade  commander 
is  Dutch  enough  for  all  practical  purposes. 
Our  regiment  is  under  excellent  discipline  and 
my  associates  very  pleasant,  gentlemanly  fel- 
lows. So  I  start  again  in  very  good  spirits  for 
another  campaign.  *  *  *  *  We  are  ordered 
to  march  in  the  morning,  but  I  don't  know  in 
what  direction,  but  I  think  the  movement  in- 
clines towards  Fredericksburg.  I  find  it  is  much 
easier  to  be  Lieutenant-Colonel  than  it  was  on 
the  staff,  as  then  I  had  nearly  everything  to  do, 
now  almost  nothing.  We  are  having  beautiful 


176  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

autumn  weather,  with  a  fine  bracing  air,  just 
right  for  military  operations.  I  find  myself 
pretty  well  acquainted  with  the  country,  and  en- 
joy visiting  the  scenes  of  my  old  hardships  and 
battles." 


WASHINGTON   IN    1862. 

T  T  NDER  date  of  November  24th,  1862,  Aliquis 
^  addresses  the  Utica  Herald  from  Centre- 
ville,  Virginia,  which  is  his  last  letter  to  that 
journal,  affording  us  a  glimpse  of  the  metropolis 
in  the  days  of  the  Rebellion. 

CENTRE VILLE,  VA.,  November  24th. 
To  the  Editor  of  the  Utica  Morning  Herald: 

A  few  days  since  I  saw  in  some  journal  that 
the  Utica  Herald,  on  account  of  the  increased 
expense  of  publishing  newspapers,  had  been  re- 
duced in  size.  I  noticed  since,  however,  that 
your  paper  has  risen,  like  the  Phoenix  from  its 
own  ashes,  and  appears  as  a  fine,  double  sheet. 
Blessed  be  newspapers  !  No  matter  if  the  news 
items  do  sometimes  draw  very  heavily  upon  the 
imagination.  "  We  pays  our  money  and  we  takes 


178  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

our  choice,"  should  be  our  consolation,  when  we 
are  at  a  loss  which  to  consider  as  miscellany, 
Sylvanus  Cobb's  tale,  or  the  telegraphic  column. 

I  am  now  in  Sigel's  Corps,  Schurtz's  Division, 
and  Schimmelfenning's  Brigade.  The  names, 
you  perceive,  are  all  Italian  and  "  breathe  of  the 
sweet  South."  We  have  been  solemnly  informed 
through  the  Washington  papers  several  times 
that  we  have  been  cut  to  pieces  and  driven  back  to 
Alexandria,  but  in  the  language  of  the  lamented 
Webster,  "  we  ain't  dead  yet,"  having  seen  noth- 
ing calculated  to  produce  death,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  commissary's  whiskey,  since  I  have  been 
here. 

We  have  been  marching  and  countermarching 
about  this  part  of  Virginia  for  a  few  days,  I 
suppose  for  the  purpose  of  covering  the  recent 
movement  towards  Fredericksburg.  By  a  re- 
cent order,  Sigel's  Corps  is  made  the  reserve 
of  the  grand  army,  whose  duty  I  presume  it  will 
be  to  protect  a  place  called  Washington,  the 
guarding  of  which  has  caused  nearly  every 
movement  of  our  armies  to  miscarry,  and  has 
cost  the  country  much  more  than  it  was  ever 
worth.  I  will  give  you  a  description  of  it. 

The  city  of  Washington,  aside  from  the  public 
buildings,  consists  of  four  hotels,  Pennsylvania 
Avenue,  Grover's  Theater,  and  Gautier's  saloon. 
The  rest  of  the  place  is  a  succession  of  country 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  179 

villages,  with  low,  illy-planned  houses,  with 
small  negroes  leaning  on  the  piazzas.  It  is  a 
capital  place  to  spend  a  fortune,  being  abun- 
dantly supplied  with  extortioners,  hackmen,  bar- 
keepers and  Jews.  The  best  places  to  get  rid  of 
money  are  Joe  Hall's  gambling  saloon  and  Wil- 
lard's  Hotel,  though  these  places  have  many  as- 
piring rivals.  There  are  no  particular  social 
distinctions  in  Washington,  but  there  is  a  sort 
of  barber-shop  and  bar-room  sociability  in  which 
every  one  who  wears  good  clothes  may  partici- 
pate. You  hardly  ever  meet  any  one  who  is  an 
actual  resident  of  Washington.  These  crowds 
that  you  meet  are  all  men  away  from  home,  and 
hence  unsettled,  anxious,  reckless,  seeking  for 
positions,  for  contracts,  for  a  living  without 
working,  for  the  necessary  bread  without  the 
usual  amount  of  perspiration  required  in  the  an- 
tediluvian sentence.  You  must  not  be  surprised 
at  meeting  any  old  acquaintance  in  Washington. 
Your  friend  Jones  or  Smith,  who  greets  you  so 
cordially  around  home,  shakes  hands  with  you 
as  a  matter  of  course  in  Washington,  but  he  ex- 
cuses himself  and  hurries  on,  as  he  is  expecting 
to  meet  some  one  of  more  influence  at  the  De- 
partments. No  one  is  interested  in  what  does 
not  concern  himself,  and  sensations  and  riots 
are  uncommon.  When  it  was  expected  the  city 
would  be  taken  by  the  confederates,  there  was 


180  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

no  great  concern,  the  billiard  balls  were  clicking 
all  day,  and  the  theatres  crowded  at  night. 
From  nine  o'clock  in  the  morning  till  three 
o'clock  in  the  afternoon  crowds  are  jostling 
around  the  Departments,  the  offensive  party. 
The  defensive  is  sustained  by  cool,  indifferent 
clerks  and  ushers.  Business  is  business  with 
them,  and  unless  the  applicant  claims  relation- 
ship with  some  one  in  the  establishment  he  is 
conscientiously  excluded. 

The  rural  visitor  in  the  city,  if  he  has  not  be- 
fore been  accustomed  to  this  mixed  society  of 
clerks,  gamblers,  officers,  fortune  hunters  and 
Congressmen,  seems  relieved  by  a  breath  of 
fresh,  home  air  again,  when  he  returns  from  this 
city,  Washington,  the  Political  Metropolis,  and 
ex-officio  the  Metropolis  of  Corruption. 

So  much  for  the  city  of  magnificent  distances. 
But  still  "  I'd  have  no  objections  to  seeing  it  a 
little  longer,"  as  the  culprit  on  the  scaffold  re- 
plied to  the  priest  when  told  that  "  life  was  all 
a  fleeting  show."  Centreville  is  about  as  deso- 
late a  looking  place  as  can  well  be  imagined, 
and  the  country  having  been  crossed  and  re- 
crossed  by  armies  on  both  sides,  every  available 
field  has  before  been  occupied  as  a  camping 
ground.  The  usual  traces  of  an  army  are  visible 
on  all  sides  ;  all  sorts  of  filth  and  garbage,  in 
which  fevers  are  lurking ;  recumbent  horses, 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  181 

very  fat  and  plump,  but  on  the  whole,  looking 
as  though  they  might  be  dead  or  something  of 
that  sort.  No  serious  epidemics  are  as  yet  pre- 
vailing, however,  yet  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  our 
winter  quarters  will  not  be  taken  at  this  place. 
Notwithstanding  what  is  felt  and  said  on  the 
subject  of  a  winter  campaign,  it  is  evident  to  all 
-who  have  had  any  military  experience  in  this 
climate,  that  if  Richmond  is  not  taken  within  a 
month,  the  state  of  the  roads  will  check  all 
active  operations  in  the  field.  With  Richmond 
as  a  new  base  it  might  be  different,  but  from  our 
present  base  it  requires  a  pretty  energetic  Gen- 
eral to  give  an  army  three  meals  a  day  at  the 
best  of  times  and  under  the  most  favorable  cir- 
cumstances. 

I  have  not  seen  the  Twenty-sixth  in  some 
time.  By  some  of  your  army  correspondence,  I 
notice  their  chaplain  has  again  joined  them. 
The  splendid  body  of  men  that  languished  in 
otium  cum  dignitatc  at  Fort  Lyon  one  year  ago, 
speculating  on  the  chances  of  seeing  active  serv- 
ice, has  in  a  series  of  campaigns  been  trans- 
formed into  a  small  band  of  veterans.  As  the 
old  organizations  dwindle  and  disappear  in  the 
discharge  of  their  duty,  new  ones  are  rushing  in 
to  fill  their  places,  to  have,  I  suppose,  the  same 
experience.  ALIQUIS. 


A  REMINISCENT  LETTER. 


*T^HE  Lieutenant-Colonel  being  now  installed 
in  his  new  position,  addresses  the  writer 
the  following  reminiscent  letter  : 

CENTREVILLE,  VIRGINIA,  Nov.  a8th,  1862. 
Dear  Chum  : 

In  camp,  near  Centreville,  very  comfortable 
tent.  Pleasant  though  cool  weather.  Regi- 
ment out  firing  at  a  target.  I'm  lonely  and 
rather  blue  ;  my  horse  has  got  the  hoof-rot,  and 
cannot  be  used.  I  am  a  little  unwell  yet  and 
off  duty;  I  am  out  of  reading  matter  and  must 
write  letters.  In  commencing  a  letter  to  you, 
old  times  come  up  before  me.  What  strange 
things  a  few  years  bring  to  pass  !  The  Brown 
that  we  used  to  designate  as  "Long  Brown  "  in 
distinction  from  other  Browns  of  no  less  marked 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  183 

peculiarities,  is  Colonel  of  a  regiment,  and  I 
Lieutenant-Colonel.  An  old  Madison  student, 
Day;  the  ex-editor  of  the  Republican,  Waldron  ; 
and  Judd  Powers,  are  privates  in  the  regiment. 
Sam  Wickwire,  formerly  known  as  "  Gumbo," 
is  a  Second  Lieutenant.  Last  summer  when  on 
the  staff  I  was  visited  by  a  Sergeant,  who  turned 
out  to  be  Palmer,  who  graduated  when  I  did — 
he  that  of  old  first  tasted  of  war  in  an  encounter 
with  George  Eaton,  one  night  when  the  "  rust 
was  rung"  at  Madison.  Ford,  of  your  class, 
was  a  Commanding  Sergeant  in  my  brigade  last 
summer.  The  other  day  I  met  Moses  H.  Bliss, 
D.  K.  E.,  a  private  in  the  Forty-fourth  New 
York  Volunteers.  Maclntyre,  Curtis,  and  Mrs. 
Haskell's  sons  are  dead.  Carl  Schurtz,  the  ora- 
tor, is  our  General  here,  and  other  Dutchmen  of 
whom  we  probably  bought  lager  beer  three 
years  ago,  are  my  compeers  in  other  regiments. 
War,  like  misery,  makes  strange  bedfellows;  as 
you  remarked  in  one  of  your  productions  of 
yore,  "  a  bundle  of  negations  and  inconsist- 
encies." Our  lines  have  truly  fallen  in  Dutch 
places,  we  being  the  only  Yankee  regiment  in 
the  Division.  "  Yankee,"  I  suppose  by  the  way, 
should  have  its  usual  prefix,  D — n  Yankee. 
Custom  has  made  it  all  one  word  among  our 
secesh  opponents,  "  Damnedyankees."  I  like 
General  Schurtz  very  well,  though  I  am  not  so 


184  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

enthusiastic  over  our  Brigadier  Schimmelfen- 
ning,  whose  name,  as  Ward  would  say,  is  "  pyure 
Spanish."  But, per  contra,  as  the  Dutch  always 
look  out  for  enough  food  to  eat,  and  whiskey 
to  drink,  we  are  well  taken  care  of,  and  "fare 
sumptuously  every  day  on  purple  and  fine 
linen,"  which  is  a  quotation,  sir,  a  quotation  ! 
I  find  that  P.  P.  makes  a  first-rate  Colonel,  and 
is  very  pleasant  to  be  associated  with.  Even 
war  produces  some  change  in  him  !  He  does 
not  swear  yet,  but  occasionally  says  he  wants  to, 
and  drinks  nothing  as  yet  stronger  than  wine, 
but  he  smokes  excessively.  The  Major  is  one 
of  the  jolliest  fellows  I  ever  knew.  This  regi- 
ment has  seen  no  fighting  yet,  and  we  have  been 
aroused  by  no  midnight  attacks  except  the  diar- 
rhea. I  don't  think  myself  we  shall  see  any  till 
spring,  as  we  shall  have  to  go  into  winter  quar- 
ters, I  expect,  about  New  Year's.  Then  I  should 
like  you  to  give  me  a  visit  and  I'll  try  to  make 
it  pleasant  for  you  as  long  as  you  wish  to  stay. 
*  *  *  *  I  saw  Rem.  Taylor,  L.  C.,  in  Wash- 
ington about  a  month  ago.  I  hear  very  favora- 
bly of  your  business  prospects,  and  with  pleas- 
ure advise  you  to  "go  in  boots."  Send  me  a 
Standard  occasionally. 

A  letter  of  November  3oth,  1862,  to  his  brother 
Stephen    from    Centreville,    Virginia,    describes 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  185 

how  he  fares  with  his  new  command.  *  *  * 
"  We  have  been  here  at  Centreville  about  two 
weeks  and  have  our  quarters  fixed  very  comfort- 
ably. Colonel  and  myself  have  one  walled  tent 
between  us;  as  good  on  the  whole  as  I  had  it 
last  winter,  though  really  we  are  not  yet  in  win- 
ter quarters.  We  have  plenty  of  eatables,  and 
on  the  whole  have  nothing  to  complain  of.  I 
have  had  bad  luck  with  my  horse,  though.  He 
has  been  having  hoof-rot,  but  is  getting  nearly 
well  now.  My  health  is  capital,  and  I  weigh  one 
hundred  and  sixty-nine  pounds.  A  perfect  mon- 
ster !  There  is  no  immediate  prospect  of  a  fight 
just  here,  and  in  fact  the  whole  game  seems  to 
be  blocked  for  some  reason." 


PERSONAL  INCIDENTS. 


Acquia  Creek,  Virginia,  he  writes 
to  his  brother  under  date  of  December 
3oth,  1862,  some  interesting  personal  incidents  : 
*  *  *  "We  are  still  in  our  old  camp  here 
and  nothing  remarkable  has  occurred.  I  was 
sent  off  with  a  detachment  of  two  hundred  men 
last  Saturday  night  to  Dumfries  to  reinfofce 
Colonel  Kennedy  there.  The  night  was  so  dark 
I  could  sometimes  hardly  see  my  horse's  head, 
and  in  the  morning  entered  Dumfries,  but  about 
an  hour  too  late  to  find  the  rebels.  After  stay- 
ing there  one  night  we  came  home  again,  having 
met  with  no  casualties.  One  good  joke:  in  the 
morning  we  stopped  to  eat  breakfast  near  a 
farm  house.  The  inmates  of  the  house  supposed 
we  were  Southerners  and  fed  our  horses  and  us 
with  great  liberality,  and  when  we  left  expressed 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  187 

a  hope  that  we'd  catch  some  of  the  deuced  Yan- 
kees soon.  They  also  said  that  some  more  of 
of  '  our  folks  '  (the  rebels)  had  been  there  about 
an  hour  before.  We  carried  out  the  joke,  and  I 
don't  know  as  they've  yet  found  out  their  mis- 
take, but  I  think  it's  highly  probable  that  they 
have. 

"I  understand  that  my  friend  Bacon,  adjutant 
of  the  Twenty-sixth,  has  died  from  wounds  re- 
ceived at  Fredericksburg.  This  makes  me  feel 
very  sad.  Both  Fessendon  and  Bacon  were  very 
intimate  friends  and  I  feel  their  loss  very  keenly. 
Bacon  was  only  twenty  years  of  age,  and  had 
just  recovered  from  a  wound  received  at  Bull 
Run.  What  a  useless  slaughter  that  affair  was  ! 

•'  I  couldn't  possibly  come  home  for  the  holi- 
days, as  the  Colonel  himself  wished  to  be  away, 
but  could  not  get  leave.  But  if  I  ever  see  a 
chance  I'll  come,  you  may  be  sure.  I  suppose 
you've  had  a  first  rate  time,  skating,  etc.  A 
happy  New  Year  to  all  !  " 

February  ist,  1863,  finds  him  at  Hartward 
Church,  Virginia.  The  next  day  he  receives  a 
furlough  and  visits  Washington  and  his  home  in 
New  Jersey.  Afterward,  his  furlough  is  extended 
to  the  2ist,  and  February  24th  he  is  back  to  his 
regiment  at  Stafford  Court  House,  Virginia. 

March  yth,  1863,  still  at  Stafford  Court  House, 


188  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

he  writes  to  Stephen  :  "  Our  fine  weather  has 
left  us  and  mud  is  again  upon  us.  One  month 
more  will  end  it,  though,  I  suppose.  We  have 
had  some  days  that  really  seemed  like  spring, 
and  I  heard  some  bluebirds  singing  in  the  sun- 
shine. We  are  in  the  pine  timber  now  and  the 
smell  of  the  smoke  as  the  March  wind  blows  it 
in  my  face  reminds  me  forcibly  of  burning  brush 
for  a  new  watermelon  patch. 

"  No,  you  needn't  try  to  tell  me  anything  about 
mud.  I've  seen  the  roads  so  that  it's  almost 
impossible  to  get  along  on  horseback.  I  haven't 
seen  Mr.  Pearse  yet;  nor  Tom;  nor  the  Twenty- 
ninth.  You  see,  I'm  unfortunately  among  these 
Dutchmen.  Tell  mother  my  red  flannel  shirts 
are  much  coveted.  They  are  the  warmest  things 
I  ever  wore." 


VISIT  TO   THE   TWENTY-NINTH. 

TV  /["ARCH  i5th,  from  the  same  place,  he  ad- 
dresses  Stephen,  giving  an  account  of  his 
interesting  visit  to  the  Twenty-ninth  New  Jer- 
sey. *  *  *  *  «j  took  a  trip  over  to  the 
left  of  the  army  last  week — a  ride  and  a  rough 
one  of  about  fifteen  miles.  I  called  for  Tom, 
but  he  was  off  on  leave  of  absence,  so  I  went 
to  the  Twenty-ninth  New  Jersey,  where  I  saw 
many  acquaintances.  Rem  was  sick  ;  Davison, 
I  thought,  was  a  pretty  fine  fellow.  I  guess 
they'll  all  be  glad  enough  when  their  time  is 
out,  from  what  I  could  observe.  Every  one 
seems  to  have  grown  fat  in  the  service.  They 
are  very  comfortably  fixed.  I  then  went  to  the 
Twenty-sixth  New  York,  now  reduced  to  about 
two  hundred  and  fifty  men,  but  it  was  quite  sad 
to  miss  the  old  faces  in  so  many  instances.  I 


190  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

had  a  great  time  recalling  old  times,  etc.,  and 
then  a  tedious  trip  home.  My  horse  essays  to 
jump  a  wide  ditch.  The  mud  is  slippery  where 
he  lands,  he  slips  back  into  it,  and  I  go  over  his 
head,  and  we're  both  disgusted  with  each  other. 
When  I  got  back  to  camp  I  found  the  Colonel 
had  gone  off  on  a  leave  of  absence  so  I'm  in 
command  again  for  ten  days." 

March  22d,  1863,  writing  his  brother  from 
Stafford  Court  House,  Virginia,  referring  to  an 
application  made  to  him  through  his  brother  by 
an  acquaintance  for  an  appointment,  he  states  : 
"  For  every  vacancy  that  occurs  here  there  are  a 
dozen  waiting  to  step  in,  and  there  is  always  the 
deuce  of  a  mess  whenever  it  is  done.  I  should 
feel  just  so  if  the  Colonel  should  resign  and 
some  other  Lieutenant-Colonel  should  be  put 
over  me.  What  company  is  he  in  ?  The  Ninth 
is  now  nowhere  near  us,  but  when  I  once  see  it 
again,  I'll  take  occasion  to  speak  a  good  word 
for  him  with  his  officers.  You  see,  Stevey,  that 
is  the  best  I  can  do  for  him  without  doing  in- 
justice to  those  with  whom  I  am  constantly  as- 
sociated. Are  you  acquainted  with  Captain 
Hendrickson  of  the  Ninth?  He  lay  wounded 
at  Fredericksburg  in  the  same  bed  with  my 
friend  Bacon  when  he  died." 

The  following  extract  from  a  letter  written  by 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  191 

a  prominent  and  influential  citizen  in  Madison 
County  under  date  of  February  23d,  1863,  to 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Arrowsmith,  voiced  the  gen- 
eral sentiment  of  the  district  from  which  the 
One  Hundred  and  Fifty-seventh  was  recruited  : 

"  Friend  Arrowsmith,  you  stand  well  with 
your  regiment.  Every  man  I  have  seen  speaks 
of  you  in  the  highest  terms.  They  think  you 
have  some  regard  for  them — that  you  can  sym- 
pathize with  them,  and  they  not  only  like  you 
but  they  love  you.  I  hope  you  will  cultivate  that 
feeling  and  I  hope  the  time  is  not  distant  when 
for  some  good  reason  Lieutenant-Colonel  Arrow- 
smith  will  be  the  Colonel  of  the  One  Hundred 
and  Fifty-seventh  and  that  the  One  Hundred 
and  Fifty-seventh  will  then  number  full  one 
thousand  effective  men.  I  do  not  wish  anything 
bad  of  any  other  person  in  order  to  give  you 
that  place,  but  if  necessary  in  order  for  you  to 
get  it,  I  hope  others  will  be  promoted  or  detailed 
to  some  other  duty  equally  congenial  with  their 
feelings.  Your  Hamilton  friends  manifest  at 
least  as  much  interest  in  your  success  as  in  any 
who  have  gone  from  Hamilton.  Yes,  through- 
out Madison  County  there  is  entire  satisfaction 
in  regard  to  Lieutenant-Colonel  Arrowsmith 
and  there  has  always  been  a  strong  feeling  that 
he  be  made  Colonel." 


192  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

March  29th,  still  at  Stafford  Court  House, 
Virginia,  with  his  regiment.  Sunday,  April  igth, 
a  letter  from  camp,  One  Hundred  and  Fifty- 
seventh  New  York  State  Volunteers,  closes  with 
the  remark,  "  I  must  go  to  meeting.  We  have 
a  first-rate  chaplain  now." 

April  26th,  1863,  from  Stafford  Court  House, 
Virginia,  he  again  writes  his  brother  *  *  *  * 
"  I'm  writing  in  quite  a  hurry,  as  we  are  ordered 
to  move  to-morrow  morning  early  and  we  have 
been  here  so  long  that  we  have  accumulated  a 
great  deal  of  luggage  to  be  taken  care  of.  You 
never  know,  you  are  aware,  how  many  things 
we  have  till  we  come  to  move.  I  don't  know 
which  way  we  are  going,  but  I  suppose  to  open 
some  manoeuvre,  though  in  what  direction  I 
know  not,  so  don't  expect  letters  so  regularly 
after  this." 


CHANCELLORSVILLE. 


rl^  HE  move  referred  to  and  which  he  supposed 
was  only  a  manoeuvre,  was  the  beginning 
of  the  important  movement  under  Hooker  to- 
wards Chancellorsville.  The  next  day,  April 
2;th,  the  Eleventh  Corps,  to  which  belonged  the 
One  Hundred  and  Fifty-seventh  Regiment,  un- 
der General  Howard,  moved  up  the  left  bank  of 
the  Rappahannock  to  Kelly's  ford,  where  it 
crossed  without  opposition.  Thence  it  moved 
toward  Chancellorsville,  in  light  marching  or- 
der, encumbered  with  little  artillery  or  baggage, 
the  ammunition  being  carried  by  mules,  and  be- 
fore the  night  of  the  thirtieth  they  had  reached 
Chancellorsville.  May  ist,  Hooker's  defensive 
line  of  battle  was  formed  in  shape  of  the  letter 
C,  fronting  south.  Howard's  Corps  was  on  the 
right  and  was  not  only  weakly  posted  but  was 


194  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

considered  a  weak  corps,  probably  on  account 
of  the  raw  material  that  composed  it ;  but  as 
the  enemy  were  wholly  on  the  Federal  left,  its 
position  was  unwisely  thought  to  be  safe.  A 
cavalry  reconnoissance  of  the  enemy  disclosed 
the  exposed  situation  of  Howard's  Corps  and 
Lee  resolved  to  attack  it.  Jackson  moved  at 
daybreak  of  May  2d  ;  by  three  o'clock  in  the 
afternoon  he  had  moved  by  forest  roads  around 
the  Union  army,  a  circuit  of  fifteen  miles,  to  a 
point  within  six  miles  from  where  he  started 
and  two  miles  to  the  west  of  Howard's  position. 
Scouts  creeping  through  the  woods  discovered 
the  Union  intrenchments  unguarded.  There 
was  no  suspicion  of  an  enemy.  The  arms  were 
stacked,  the  men  preparing  their  dinner.  At 
five  o'clock  herds  of  deer,  scared  from  their 
bushy  retreats,  came  rushing  over  the  lines.  In 
a  few  minutes  Jackson  burst  upon  them  through 
the  woods.  The  regiments  upon  whom  the 
shock  first  fell  scattered  without  firing  a  shot, 
and  the  corps  broke  in  disorder  and  fled.  The 
pursuit  was  checked  in  one  quarter  by  General 
Pleasanton  with  cavalry  and  artillery ;  and  in 
another  by  General  Hooker,  who,  after  vainly 
trying  to  check  the  fugitives,  some  of  whom 
were  shot  down  by  his  staff,  caused  Berry's  Di- 
vision to  pass  straight  through  the  flying  crowd 
and  pour  into  the  woods  a  fire  of  artillery  which 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROW'SMITH.  195 

brought  the  pursuers  to  a  stand.  It  was  here 
that  Jackson  lost  his  life  by  the  fire  of  his  own 
men. 

On  Sunday  morning,  May  3d,  Howard's  Corps 
was  on  the  extreme  left  of  Hooker's  line,  where 
no  attack  was  looked  for,  and  it  took  no  further 
part  in  the  action.  On  Tuesday  night,  the 
Union  army  recrosses  the  Rappahannock.  Of 
the  five  thousand  Union  soldiers  missing  in  that 
action,  two  thousand  were  from  Howard's  Corps. 

The  rout  of  the  Eleventh  Corps  was  owing  to 
an  overweening  confidence  in  the  safety  of  its 
position,  on  the  extreme  right  of  the  Union 
army,  while  the  enemy,  being  wholly  on  the 
Federal  left,  the  possibility  of  an  attack  was 
deemed  too  remote  to  be  entertained,  and  in 
consequence  no  pickets  were  posted.  This  was 
an  inexcusable  neglect,  especially  in  view  of  the 
fact  that  at  one  time  during  the  day,  Jackson's 
long  column  at  one  point  where  his  line  of 
march  led  him  over  a  high  hill,  was  seen  by  the 
Federal  outposts.  It  was  moving  southward  as 
though  in  full  retreat  towards  Richmond.  Still 
the  movement  might  be  meant  for  an  attack 
upon  Howard's  position,  and  he  was  directed  to 
be  upon  the  alert,  and  also  to  throw  out  pickets 
on  his  front — a  precaution  the  neglect  of  which 
is  unexplained. 

Notwithstanding    the  surprise    of    the  attack 


196  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  AKROWSMITH. 

and  the  great  confusion  of  the  flight,  the  One 
Hundred  and  Fifty-seventh  Regiment,  though 
in  action  for  the  first  time,  acquitted  itself  with 
credit.  Its  excellent  discipline  enabled  it  to 
form  very  quickly,  and  it  stood  its  ground  until 
ordered  to  retreat,  when  it  retreated  in  good 
order,  occasionally  halting  to  check  the  pursuit 
of  the  enemy  by  a  well-directed  volley.  Night 
was  coming  on,  and  seeing  that  they  were  pur- 
sued by  only  a  small  detachment,  they  halted 
and  charged  on  the  enemy,  taking  some  prison- 
ers. Then  it  was  dark,  and  they  were  alone  in 
a  great  forest.  Selecting  a  road  that  led  towards 
the  firing  of  the  battle,  bearing  their  wounded 
with  them,  they  finally  brought  up  at  Hooker's 
headquarters,  where  they  found  General  Schim- 
melfenning  rallying  the  Germans.  Here  they 
were  publicly  thanked  by  the  commanding  Gen- 
erals. 

Colonel  Arrowsmith,  from  the  beginning  to 
the  end,  was  at  his  post  of  duty,  and  by  his 
coolness  and  intrepidity,  inspired  his  regiment 
with  the  valor  of  veterans.  It  was  reported  as 
the  verdict  of  his  officers  and  men,  that  by  his 
superior  tact  and  gallant  dash,  he  saved  his 
regiment  from  annihilation.  Its  loss  was  one 
hundred  and  seven  men.  In  the  report  of  the 
action  it  was  highly  complimented  by  the  Gen- 
eral in  command  for  its  good  conduct. 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  197 

Just  ten  days  after  leaving  Stafford  Court 
House  the  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-seventh  is 
back  there  again  in  its  old  camp.  It  has  seen 
stirring  times  during  its  short  absence,  and  the 
first  opportunity  is  now  afforded  for  the  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel to  write  home  announcing  his 
safety  and  the  result  of  "  the  raid  across  the 
river."  It  is  as  follows  : 

STAFFORD  COURT  HOUSE,  VA., 

May  yth,  1863. 
Dear  Stevey  : 

All  safe  and  sound  yet.  I  take  the  pains  to  tell 
you  of  it,  for  so  many  rumors  are  afloat  about 
our  corps.  We  were  in  the  raid  across  the  river, 
and  our  corps  was  badly  whipped  by  being  sur- 
prised by  a  sudden  attack  on  our  rear  while  we 
were  carelessly  at  supper.  I'll  tell  you  more 
when  I'm  not  so  sleepy,  for  there  is  a  great  deal 
to  tell.  Your  brother,  GEORGE. 

In  accordance  with  his  promise  in  the  last  let- 
ter to  tell  more,  he  writes  his  brother  on  May 
nth  from  the  same  camp,  which  is  not  only  a 
valuable  contribution  to  the  history  of  the  part 
taken  by  the  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-seventh 
in  the  battle  of  Chancellorsville,  but  a  full  and 
complete  vindication  of  its  honor,  courage  and 
soldierly  discipline  under  the  most  trying  cir- 
cumstances. 


HONOR  FOR  THE    I57TH. 

u  T  SUPPOSE  you  have  been  informed 
through  the  public  press  of  our  move- 
ments in  the  crossing  of  the  Rappahannock — of 
how  'the  Eleventh  Corps  disgraced  itself'  and 
no  longer  'fights  mit  Sigel '  but  'runs  mit 
Howard.'  This  in  short  was  owing  to  three 
causes — First,  miserable  generalship  ;  second, 
miserable  fighting  ;  third,  having  no  newspaper 
reporters. 

"We  left  this  camp  on  Monday  and  marched 
to  Kelly's  ford,*  built  a  bridge  in  the  nijrht, 
drove  away  the  enemy's  pickets  and  crossed 
over.  In  the  morning,  marched  towards  the 
Rapidan,  skirmishing  with  the  enemy's  cavalry. 
Surprised  about  one  hundred  rebels  building  a 
bridge  at  the  Rapidan  and  captured  them.  Our 
footmen  crossed  in  the  night  on  the  timbers, 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  199 

our  horsemen  fording  the  river  and  getting 
pretty  wet.  A  terrible  rain  in  the  night.  Thence 
to  Chancellorsville  where  we  begin  to  find  the 
enemy  in  the  woods.  We  occupy  the  extreme 
right  in  a  wooded  country.  Friday  afternoon 
and  evening  we  have  some  outpost  fighting. 
Saturday  our  brigadier  is  very  particular  with 
his  pickets  and  reconnoitres  continually,  skirmish- 
ing all  the  day  long.  But  there  is  one  place  in 
our  rear,  in  another  division,  where  there  are  no 
pickets  and  messengers  are  sent  to  report  it  to 
General  Howard.  He  says  we  do  not  need  any 
there,  that  the  attack  will  be  in  front.  The  skir- 
mishing continues  all  day  and  attracts  but  little 
attention.  About  five  o'clock  we  are  carelessly 
eating  supper.  The  division  that  had  no  pickets 
was  suddenly  attacked — Devins's  Division — com- 
pletely bewildered  as  the  rebels  came  from  the 
woods  right  upon  their  rear.  Then  they  broke. 
Their  battery,  pointed  exactly  in  the  wrong 
direction,  was  captured.  The  artillery  horses, 
cut  loose,  ran  frantic  through  the  rear  line,  in- 
creasing the  confusion.  Then  some  of  our  Ger- 
man regiments  did  break  shamefully  at  finding 
the  rebels  in  their  rear  and  their  own  officers 
killed.  We  changed  front  then  and  resisted  the 
advance.  The  Germans  fell  back  and  left  us 
alone.  The  General  who  was  yet  with  us  then 
ordered  us  to  fall  back  firing,  as  the  enemy  had 


200  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL   ARROWSMITH. 

then  got  on  both  our  flanks.  Then  back  we 
went,  occasionally  facing  about  and  giving  a 
volley.  As  we  retreated  we  got  into  a  woods 
The  General  left  us  for  another  part  of  the  field 
and  no  other  regiment  was  around  us.  Night 
was  now  coming  on.  General  Slocum  now  en- 
gaged the  enemy  so  that  only  a  small  detach- 
ment pursued  us  through  the  forest.  As  soon 
as  we  found  this  out,  we  halted  and  charged  on 
them,  driving  them  back  and  taking  four  prison- 
ers. Then  we  were  left  alone  and  the  question 
was  which  way  to  go.  It  was  dark,  we  had  no 
compass  and  it  was  a  matter  of  some  importance 
which  army  we  should  come  upon.  The  battle 
was  still  going  on  and  we  took  a  wood  road  and 
went  towards  the  firing,  taking  our  wounded 
with  us.  We  had  the  good  luck  to  come  near 
Hooker's  headquarters,  where  we  found  Schim- 
melfenning  rallying  the  Germans.  Here  the 
generals  publicly  thanked  the  field  officers  and 
the  regiment  generally.  So  this  is  the  second 
time  I  have  had  the  luck  to  gain  credit  in  a  de- 
feat, but  there  isn't  much  consolation  in  it.  Our 
regiment  is  much  honored  in  the  corps,  but 
we're  all  in  disgrace  together  and  I  wish  we 
were  clear  of  the  Dutch.  The  Dutch  are  blam- 
ing Howard  for  his  negligence  and  he  blames 
the  Germans  for  breaking.  They  are  both  right. 
We  are  out  of  the  quarrel  and  they  both  praise 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  201 

us.  To  make  matters  worse  the  newspaper  re- 
porters in  the  employ  of  Hooker  and  Howard 
have  laid  the  whole  blame  on  the  troops,  but  that 
will  come  all  right  in  time.  The  upshot  of  the 
whole  was,  the  Eleventh  Corps  was  shamefully 
beaten  ;  the  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-seventh 
has  derived  credit  from  it  though  with  the  loss 
of  one  hundred  and  seven  men.  I  was  not 
scratched.  Colonel  Brown  was  very  slightly  in- 
jured on  the  arm  by  a  spent  shot.  On  Sunday, 
Monday  and  Tuesday  the  battles  were  successes, 
but  the  original  plan  was  foiled  and  the  whole 
army  safely  re-crossed  the  river,  and  we  were 
out  from  under  fire  again.  The  slaughter  among 
the  rebels  I've  no  doubt  was  terrible.  Howard 
is  much  blamed  for  his  negligence.  Instead  of 
our  flank  being  reinforced,  one  brigade  was  sent 
during  the  day  to  strengthen  Sickles." 

Captain  George  L.  Warner,  of  Cortland,  New 
York,  is  one  of  the  few  surviving  officers  of  the 
One  Hundred  and  Fifty-seventh  Regiment.  He 
is  now  secretary  of  the  regimental  association, 
and  he  has  kindly  favored  me  with  a  letter  con- 
taining some  of  his  recollections  of  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Arrowsmith  and  the  One  Hundred  and 
Fifty-seventh  at  Chancellorsville,  from  which  I 
make  a  few  extracts  that  may  be  of  interest. 
*  *  *  *  «i  weu  remember  the  battle  of 


202  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

Chancellorsville.  I  was  First  Lieutenant  in  a 
company  at  that  time,  and  saw  Arrowsmith  in 
the  hottest  part  of  the  fight.  I  can  answer  for 
his  coolness  under  fire,  inspiring  confidence 
among  the  officers  and  men  by  his  example. 
On  the  first  day  at  Chancellorsville  we  were  in 
column  en  masse,  facing  south,  when  we  were 
struck  by  Jackson  on  the  right  flank.  We  im- 
mediately fell  in.  Our  right  rested  on  a  thick 
grove,  and  we  started  to  face  the  advancing 
enemy.  The  underbrush  was  so  thick  that  we 
had  to  move  by  the  flank,  in  a  wood  road,  and 
the  brush  on  either  side  was  so  thick  that  it  was 
impossible  to  get  away  from  the  lane,  when  we 
were  met  first  with  one  or  two  wounded  horses, 
that  jumped  right  into  the  ranks.  You  can  im- 
agine the  result.  This  was  followed  up  by  minie 
bullets.  We  retreated  back  to  the  clearing, 
where  we  had  been  all  day,  and  made  a  stand, 
firing  several  volleys  into  the  advancing  column, 
by  which  we  held  them  till  the  main  body  came 
up;  they  having  the  woods  and  we  the  open 
field  and  within  rifle  range,  the  advantage  was 
all  on  their  side.  We  again  fell  back,  and  when 
they  came  out  of  the  woods,  we  made  another 
stand  and  gave  the  enemy  some  punishment. 
We  here  lost  several  men.  Then  we  fell  back 
to  the  Chancellorsville  house,  and  the  lines  were 
formed.  Arrowsmith  was  always  at  his  post  of 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  203 

duty.  I  do  not  think  that  there  was  ever  the 
slightest  misunderstanding  between  the  Colonel, 
Lieutenant-Colonel  and  Major.  They  always 
pulled  together,  and  throughout  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  Fifty-seventh  there  were  never  any 
dissensions.  I  attribute  this  in  a  great  measure 
to  the  influence  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  Arrow- 
smith.  If  Major  Carmichael  were  living  he 
could  tell  you  a  great  deal  more  than  I  can,  for 
he  was  with  him  most  of  the  time,  but  he  died 
two  years  ago;  also  Captain  Coffin,  who  died 
several  years  since  ;  and  there  are  but  two  of 
the  original  captains  living,  Frank  Place  of 
Cortland,  and  L.  F.  Briggs  of  Eaton,  Madison 
County,  New  York,  who  was  at  Gettysburg,  and 
left  on  the  field  badly  wounded.  I  was  pro- 
moted to  the  captaincy  in  the  latter  part  of 
1864.  As  lieutenant  I  did  not  have  much  social 
intercourse  with  the  field  officers,  but  I  was 
always  received  by  Colonel  Arrowsmith  with 
the  same  cordiality  as  though  I  had  been  an 
officer  of  equal  rank,  which  was  one  of  his  pe- 
culiar characteristics.  It  was  equally  so  with 
the  enlisted  men,  and  I  never  heard  an  unkind 
word  from  any  member  of  the  One  Hundred 
and  Fifty-seventh,  officer  or  private,  concerning 
Colonel  Arrowsmith." 

May  1 7th,  from  camp    near    Brooks    Station, 
Virginia,    the    Lieutenant -Colonel    writes    that 


204  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

they  have  moved  their  camp  for  sanitary  reasons, 
about  a  mile  from  their  former  camp,  in  a  splen- 
did place.  "What  a  beautiful  Sunday!"  he 
writes.  "  The  birds  singing  and  the  sun  shin- 
ing." He  speaks  of  a  visit  to  his  brother  Tom, 
who  had  returned  from  a  raid,  and  who  had 
given  him  one  of  his  horses  to  keep  for  him, 
which  he  was  glad  to  do.  During  the  last  week, 
he  states,  he  has  been  acting  as  president  of  a 
Court  Martial.  Referring  to  the  rout  of  the 
Eleventh  Corps,  he  says:  "Nothing  new.  Time 
and  truth  are  working  a  little  in  favor  of  the 
Eleventh  Corps,  but  truth  will  never  help  some 
regiments  in  it.  We  have  the  assurance  from 
the  Generals  that  ours  will  be  most  favorably 
mentioned  in  the  reports,  so  on  that  we  rest." 

May  24th,  writing  from  the  same  place,  he 
says  :  "  We  have  a  splendid  camp,  adorned  with 
evergreens  like  an  ice  cream  garden.  The 
Colonel  is  off  on  a  ten-days'  leave,  and  I  am  in 
command.  The  indications  are  that  we  shall 
do  nothing  for  some  time,  at  least.  The  pickets 
are  reduced  and  we're  taking  our  ease.  Schurtz 
has  his  wife  here." 

Another  letter  from  the  same  place,  under 
date  of  May  3ist,  1863,  his  mind  recurs  to  the 
defeat  of  the  Eleventh  Corps.  *  *  *  "  You 
will  perceive  that  there  is  now  a  more  rational 
opinion  afloat  with  regard  to  the  Eleventh  Corps. 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  205 

I  must  confess  the  corps  didn't  do  to  suit  me, 
for  it  was  the  duty  of  the  corps  to  remain  there 
and  die  under  the  circumstances.  Still,  out  of 
justice  to  the  many  that  fell  there,  the  eighty- 
three  from  my  own  regiment,  a  wholesale  con- 
demnation is  hardly  fair.  We  had  the  misfor- 
tune to  occupy  the  critical  position  under  a 
corps  general,  who  never  before  commanded  a 
corps,  and  a  commander-in-chief  who  never  be- 
fore commanded  an  army.  I  think  some  other 
corps  might  have  stood  there  fifteen  minutes 
longer,  only  that,  for  Jackson's  whole  army  was 
upon  us.  The  Germans  also  would  not  have 
acted  so  under  Sigel."  *  *  * 


THE   INVASION   OF  THE   NORTH 


*T^HE  results  of  the  battles  of  Fredericksburg 
and  Chancellorsville  inspired  the  most 
sanguine  hopes  at  Richmond,  and  it  was  re- 
solved to  renew  the  invasion  of  the  North  upon 
a  scale  that  would  enable  the  South  to  conquer 
peace  and  dictate  its  terms.  Early  in  June  Lee's 
army  began  its  northward  march,  moving  down 
the  valley  of  the  Shenandoah  westward  of  the 
Blue  Ridge  Mountains.  The  Union  army  fol- 
lowed in  a  parallel  direction  on  the  opposite  side 
of  the  Blue  Ridge. 

On  the  twenty-first  of  June  the  One  Hundred 
and  Fifty-seventh  was  at  Goose  Creek,  Virginia, 
about  six  miles  south  of  Leesburg.  Here  our 
Lieutenant-Colonel  writes  to  his  brother:  "We 
are  in  a  bivouac  along  the  stream  about  six 
miles  from  Leesburg,  but  we  do  not  expect  to 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  207 

stay  here  long.  I  hear  some  fighting  now  in 
the  direction  of  Aldie.  Pleasanton's  cavalry,  I 
guess.  I  went  on  a  scout  over  in  Maryland  last 
week,  with  one  cavalryman,  swimming  our 
horses  over  the  Potomac.  We  had  a  first-rate 
time,  but  were  arrested  by  our  own  cavalry  as 
spies  over  the  river.  We  got  back  all  safe  yes- 
terday afternoon.  I  saw  the  Twenty-ninth  just 
before  they  started.  I  think  they  had  better 
come  back  again.  All  well,  and  right." 

On  the  twenty-fourth  and  twenty-fifth  of  June 
the  confederate  army  crossed  the  Potomac, 
near  the  battle  field  of  Antietam,  and  pressed 
on  towards  Chambersburg  in  Pennsylvania. 
On  the  twenty-sixth  Hooker  crossed  the  Poto- 
mac at  Edwards  Ferry,  and  moved  towards 
Frederick  City.  The  next  day  Hooker  resigned 
the  command  of  the  army,  and  General  Meade 
was  appointed  in  his  stead.  Howard  retained 
the  command  of  the  Eleventh  Corps.  A  por- 
tion of  Lee's  army  had  reached  Carlisle,  Pa., 
and  was  preparing  to  move  on  Harrisburg,  but 
the  news  that  Meade  had  crossed  the  Potomac, 
and  was  advancing  northward,  compelled  him 
to  change  his  plans  and  move  towards  Gettys- 
burg. On  the  twenty-eighth  of  June  a  portion 
of  Hooker's  corps,  including  the  One  Hundred 
and  Fifty-seventh  New  York,  had  reached  Mid- 


208  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

dletown,  Maryland.  From  this  point  the  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel writes  his  last  letter  home.  It 
is  addressed  as  usual  to  "Dear  Stevey "  and 
was  written  on  Sunday,  just  three  days  before 
the  battle,  but  it  was  not  received  by  his  brother 
until  after  the  melancholy  news  of  his  death. 
In  it  he  writes  : 

"  Well,  we  are  in  Maryland.  In  as  fine  a  coun- 
try as  I  ever  saw  in  my  life — like  Pleasant  Val- 
ley— quite  re/reshing — abundance  of  everything 
—nearly  all  Union  people — stars  and  stripes 
hanging  out  all  over — hotels  open — no  robbing 
on  the  one  side,  and  no  bushwhacking  on  the 
other;  quite  a  pleasant  change  for  the  army,  but 
quite  bad  for  the  country  generally.  Middle- 
town  is  a  nice  place,  about  like  Middletown 
Point,  and  the  people  are  nearly  all  Unionists, 
so  it  is  very  pleasant.  I  have  been  a  little  un- 
well for  a  day  or  two,  and  have  been  staying  at 
a  private  house,  but  am  all  right  again  now,  and 
expect  to  return  to  camp  to-morrow.  Write 
soon." 

How  rejoiced  must  have  been  these  worn  and 
travel-stained  troops,  after  two  years  of  cam- 
paigning upon  the  battle-scarred  fields  of  Vir- 
ginia, hot  and  smoking  amid  the  desolations  of 
war,  to  find  themselves  surrounded  by  green 
pastures  and  fields  of  bending  grain.  Loud 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  209 

and  long  must  have  been  their  cheers  and  their 
songs,  as  the  Union-loving  citizens  of  Maryland 
greeted  them  with  the  emblems  of  loyalty  from 
every  housetop  and  window,  and  spread  before 
them  the  richest  bounties  of  their  generous  hos- 
pitality. As  the  Lieutenant-Colonel  expresses 
it,  there  was  no  bushwhacking,  no  robbing,  now, 
for  the  boys  in  blue,  for  the  first  time,  were 
campaigning  among  their  friends. 


THE  BATTLE  OF  GETTYSBURG. 

the  night  of  June  3oth,  General  Howard's 
Corps  was  supporting  the  First,  and  lay 
at  Emmetsburg,  ten  miles  south  of  Gettysburg, 
with  orders  to  march  up  and  keep  within  sup- 
porting distance  of  the  First  Corps.  On  the 
morning  of  the  first  of  July  it  left  Emmetsburg 
and  marched  to  Gettysburg.  On  the  way  the)' 
caught  the  sound  of  artillery  firing.  It  was  the 
First  Corps  engaging  the  enemy.  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Arrowsmith  had  not  fully  recovered 
from  his  illness  at  Middletown,  but  he  felt  able 
to  ride  his  horse.  Dr.  H.  C.  Hendrick,  the 
regimental  surgeon,  rode  by  his  side.  Hear- 
ing heavy  cannonading  Arrowsmith  remarked, 
"  There  will  be  warm  work  to-day,  Doctor." 
The  doctor  replied  :  "  You  must  not  go  into  the 
fight,  Colonel;  you  are  not  strong  enough."  As 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  211 

they  proceeded,  Colonel  Arrowsmith  talked 
freely  and  spoke  of  the  trepidation  usually  ex- 
perienced upon  going  into  battle  the  first  time. 
"  I  have  gotten  over  all  that,"  said  he.  "  I  have 
come  to  feel  that  the  bullet  is  not  moulded 
which  is  to  kill  me."* 

The  regiment  reached  Gettysburg  about  noon, 
much  fatigued  with  a  rapid  march  on  a  mid- 
summer day.  An  order  is  given  to  double-quick 
march.  They  take  to  the  sidewalks.  Captain 
Dilger's  First  Ohio  Battery,  which  was  behind, 
sweeps  by  them  on  a  swift  gallop,  its  cannoniers 
bouncing  high  in  their  seats  as  the  wheels  re- 
volve rapidly  over  obstructions  in  the  roadway. 
The  men  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-seventh 
swing  their  hats  in  the  air  with  loud  cheers  for 
the  First  Ohio  Battery.  They  know  each  other, 
for  they  were  together  at  Chancellorsville. 
They  pass  through  the  town  to  a  point  a  few 
hundred  yards  north  of  it,  where  three  roads 
come  together.  The  Mummasburg  road  branch- 
ing to  the  northwest;  the  Carlisle  road  to  the 
north,  and  the  Harrisburg  road  to  the  northeast. 
In  the  double  triangle  thus  formed  the  Eleventh 
Corps  took  its  position  facing  northward,  the 
One  Hundred  and  Fifty-seventh  Regiment  being 
posted  in  a  field  on  the  right  of  the  First  Corps, 


*  Appendix,  Note  E. 


212  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

with  the  Mummasburg  road  on  its  left  and  the 
Carlisle  road  on  its  right,  while  the  First  Ohio 
Battery  was  immediately  in  its  front.  The  shell 
from  the  guns  of  the  enemy  flew  over  the  bat- 
tery and  fell  in  the  regiment,  doing  much  in- 
jury, and  on  account  of  the  horses  becoming 
restless,  Colonel  Brown  and  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Arrowsmith  dismounted  and  sent  their  animals 
to  the  rear.  The  first  shot  from  the  Ohio  Bat- 
tery flew  over  the  confederate  battery.  At  this 
the  rebels  were  jubilant  and  yelled  in  derision. 
Captain  Dilger  now  sighted  the  gun  himself  and 
fired  it.  The  shot  dismounted  a  rebel  gun  and 
killed  the  horses.  Captain  Dilger  tried  it  a  sec- 
ond time,  sighting  and  firing  the  gun.  No  ef- 
fect being  visible  with  the  naked  eye,  Colonel 
Brown,  who  was  near,  asked  "  What  effect,  Cap- 
tain Dilger  ?  "  Captain,  after  looking  through 
his  glass,  replied,  "  I  have  spiked  a  gun  for  them, 
plugging  it  at  the  muzzle."  In  the  first  move- 
ment of  the  regiment  on  the  left  of  the  field  two 
hundred  rebels  came  in  and  surrendered  them- 
selves as  prisoners.  Once,  under  fire,  while  ex- 
ecuting a  manoeuvre,  the  regiment  fell  into  con- 
fusion, from  which  there  seemed  to  be  difficulty 
in  extricating  it.  Then  was  heard  the  stento- 
rian voice  of  the  Lieutenant-Colonel  conveying 
the  right  order  at  the  right  moment,  which  im- 
mediately relieved  the  embarrassment.  A  sur- 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  218 

vivor  of  the  regiment  relating  the  incident  says, 
"  Oh,  how  glad  we  were  to  hear  that  voice,  for 
then  we  knew  that  our  beloved  Lieutenant- 
Colonel,  who  had  been  ill,  was  with  us."* 

During  the  forenoon,  the  First  Corps  had 
more  than  held  its  own,  driving  the  enemy  and 
capturing  many  prisoners.  About  ten  o'clock 
rebel  reinforcements  began  to  arrive.  Rodes 
and  Early  had  come  up  by  a  rapid  march. 
Rodeo's  Division  entered  the  fight  about  noon. 
The  First  Corps,  now  greatly  outnumbered  and 
hard  pressed,  was  about  giving  way  on  its  right. 
It  was  at  this  juncture  the  Eleventh  Corps  ar- 
rived. By  their  support  the  tide  of  battle  was 
stayed.  It  was  now  two  o'clock.  Early's  Divi- 
sion then  advanced,  forming  in  front  of  Schurtz's 
Division. 

It  was  impossible  for  the  First  Corps  and  two 
divisions  of  the  Eleventh  Corps,  comprising  not 
more  than  eighteen  thousand  men,  to  stand  long 
before  forty  thousand  of  Heath,  Fender,  Rodes 
and  Early.  General  Howard  wisely  recognizing 
this  fact,  before  any  order  of  retreat  had  been 
given,  directed  the  withdrawal  of  the  heavy  ar- 
tillery to  Cemetery  Hill,  and  so  disposed  of 
Steinwehr's  Division  that  it  could  support  our 
retiring  men. 


*  Appendix,  Note  F. 


DEATH  OF  ARROWSMITH. 

"C*  ARLY'S  Division  now  entered  the  fight. 
The  Federal  line  was  sorely  pressed.  It 
took  the  form  of  a  crescent,  its  extreme  points 
being  drawn  in  towards  the  town,  while  the  cen- 
tre, which  was  the  position  of  the  One  Hundred 
and  Fifty-seventh,  was  in  danger  of  being  cut 
off  altogether  by  the  confederate  attack  upon 
both  flanks.  The  enemy  was  seen  advancing 
toward  the  town  by  the  right  flank,  driving  the 
Second  Brigade.  General  Schimmelfenning  or- 
dered the  regiment  to  move  over  to  the  right  to 
check  their  advance.  It  proceeded  to  execute 
the  order  and  moved  up  to  within  fifty  yards  of 
the  enemy.  The  attack  was  made.  Colonel 
Arrowsmith  was  on  the  right  of  the  line.  His 
voice  was  heard  above  the  din  of  the  battle,  en- 
couraging the  men  and  directing  their  fire.  The 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  215 

regiment  was  in  an  exposed  place  and  suffering 
fearful  slaughter  by  the  enemy's  fire  upon  both 
flanks.  After  fighting  a  short  time  Colonel  Ar- 
rowsmith  fell,  struck  by  a  rifle  ball  in  the  fore- 
head. A  general  retreat  had  been  ordered,  but 
the  aide  bearing  the  order  had  his  horse  shot 
under  him  and  it  did  not  reach  the  brigade 
promptly.  It  came  at  last  and  the  regiment  re- 
treated. The  following  letter  from  Colonel 
Brown,  written  twenty-four  days  after  the  battle, 
but  Hitherto  unpublished,  was  intended  to  give 
to  the  public  the  particulars  concerning  Colonel 
Arrowsmith's  death: 

WASHINGTON,  D.  C,  July  27th,  1863. 
Mr.  Editor; 

As  several  incorrect  reports  have  been  made 
with  reference  to  the  death  of  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  Arrowsmith,  I  thought  it  would  be  grat- 
ifying to  his  friends  to  know  all  the  particulars 
just  as  they  are.  The  morning  of  the  day  on 
which  the  battle  occurred,  the  regiment  marched 
from  Emmetsburg,  a  distance  of  ten  miles, 
reaching  Gettysburg  very  much  worried.  The 
greatly  superior  numbers  against  which  the  First 
Corps  were  contending  made  it  necessary  for 
the  Eleventh  to  be  thrown  promptly  forward. 
Without  stopping  for  rest  we  were  moved 
through  the  town  upon  the  double  quick  and 


216  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARBOWSMITH. 

placed  in  position  behind  Dilger's  Battery, 
which  was  soon  engaged  by  three  batteries  of 
the  enemy.  While  lying  there  the  numerous 
shot  and  shell  thrown  among  us  rendered  our 
horses  so  unmanageable  we  both  dismounted 
and  sent  them  to  the  rear.  After  the  rebel  bat- 
teries had  been  silenced  the  whole  brigade  was 
thrown  forward.  Soon  after  reaching  the  posi- 
tion assigned  us  I  was  ordered  by  General 
Schimmelfenning  to  move  over  some  distance  to 
the  right  and  attack  the  enemy,  who  were  then 
driving  the  Second  Brigade  of  our  Division. 
This  order  I  proceeded  at  once  to  execute.  In 
order  to  get  my  regiment  into  position  to  do  ef- 
fective service,  I  found  it  necessary  to  move  up 
to  within  fifty  yards  of  the  enemy,  who  by  the 
time  I  reached  my  position  had  placed  a  whole 
brigade  in  line  to  resist  my  attack.  The  attack 
was  made,  Colonel  Arrowsmith  occupying  his 
proper  position  on  the  right,  encouraging  his 
men  and  faithfully  and  gallantly  doing  his  whole 
duty,  while  I  gave  my  attention  to  the  centre 
and  left.  We  had  been  fighting  but  a  short 
time,  when,  upon  looking  to  the  right,  I  discov- 
ered that  the  Lieutenant-Colonel  was  missing. 
I  moved  at  once  to  the  right  and  found  him 
lying  upon  his  back,  badly  wounded  in  the  head, 
breathing  slowly  and  heavily,  and  evidently  in- 
sensible. As  my  presence  along  the  line  was 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  217 

more  necessary  that  he  had  fallen,  I  could  stop 
but  a  moment,  and  returned  to  my  position. 
The  men  were  falling  rapidly  and  the  enemy's 
line  was  taking  the  form  of  a  semi-circle,  evi- 
dently with  the  design  of  surrounding  us,  at  the 
same  time  concentrating  the  fire  of  their  whole 
brigade  upon  my  rapidly  diminishing  numbers. 
An  enfilading  fire  from  a  battery  upon  our  left 
was  also  doing  fearful  execution.  I  had  looked 
around  several  times  to  see  if  some  support 
would  not  be  sent,  or  an  order  for  retreat. 
Neither  came.  The  last  time  I  looked  I  saw 
one  of  General  Schimmelfenning's  aides  about 
half  way  across  the  field,  taking  the  saddle  off 
his  horse  and  running  back,  and  I  learned  from 
some  of  my  wounded  men  who  fell  before  we 
reached  our  position,  that  the  same  aide  came 
out  a  short  distance  and  hallooed  to  me  to  re- 
treat. I,  however,  heard  no  order.  Seeing  that 
we  were  likely  to  be  all  shot  down  or  taken 
prisoners,  I  ordered  a  retreat.  From  the  wound- 
ed left  on  the  field  I  learned  that  the  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  died  shortly  after  the  retreat.  An  at- 
tempt was  made  to  bring  him  off,  but  the  prox- 
imity of  the  enemy  and  the  hot  firing  prevented. 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Arrowsmith  died,  as  every 
true  soldier  would  wish  to  die,  at  his  post,  gal- 
lantly fighting  for  his  country.  A  brave  man,  a 
skillful  officer,  possessing  a  keen  sense  of  honor, 


218  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

generous  to  a  fault,  bound  to  him  by  a  long  per- 
sonal attachment  formed  and  ripened  in  the 
various  relations  of  teachers  and  pupils,  asso- 
ciate teachers  and  fellow  officers,  I  mourn  his 
loss  as  that  of  a  brother,  and  offer  to  the  family 
and  friends  of  the  lamented  hero  my  warmest 
and  tenderest  sympathy. 

I  am,  sir,  with  great  respect, 

Your  obedient  servant, 

P.  P.  BROWN,  JR., 
Col.  i^th  N.   Y.   Vols. 

I  am  indebted  to  Lieutenant-Colonel  Frank 
Place  of  Cortland,  New  York,  for  another  ac- 
count of  Colonel  Arrowsmith's  death  and  of  the 
part  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-seventh  in 
the  first  day's  battle  of  Gettysburg.  Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Place  was  the  senior  captain  in  the 
regiment  at  that  time  and  a  warm  personal 
friend  of  Colonel  Arrowsmith.  He  writes 
*  *  *  "Our  corps  (Eleventh)  came  up  from 
Emmetsburg  at  about  noon,  passed  through  the 
town  and  took  position  on  the  right  of  the  First 
Corps,  my  own  regiment  deploying  into  the 
field  east  of  the  Mummasburg  road  and  just  op- 
posite the  Pennsylvania  College.  We  were  soon 
moved  further  east— as  far  as  the  Carlisle  road, 
and  there  supported  the  battery  belonging  to 
our  brigade.  After  an  hour  or  so  the  battery 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  219 

and  my  regiment  were  ordered  forward,  towards 
the  hill  between  these  two  roads,  the  battery 
was  withdrawn  and  my  regiment  continued  to 
advance.  Soon  it  was  discovered  that  the  ene- 
my were  advancing  towards  the  town  by  our 
right  flank.  We  were  ordered  by  the  Colonel 
to  '  change  front  forward  on  first  company,'  all 
the  while  under  fire  apparently  on  both  flanks. 
It  was  while  this  movement  was  being  executed 
or  just  after  that  Lieutenant-Colonel  Arrow- 
smith  received  the  fatal  shot.  He  was  near  the 
right  of  the  line.  I  think  that  he  never  stirred 
after  he  fell.  I  was  within  ten  feet  of  him  when 
he  fell.  I  was  the  Senior  Captain  in  the  regi- 
ment and  was  in  my  place,  but  having  the  com- 
mand of  my  men,  I  could  render  him  no  assist- 
ance. My  recollection  is  that  orders  to  retreat 
very  soon  reached  us  and  we  left  the  field. 

"  My  First  Lieutenant,  J.  A.  Coffin,  was  wound- 
ed and  left  upon  the  field.  He  recovered  after 
a  while  and  found  Colonel  Arrowsmith's  body, 
and  took  from  his  person  his  D.  K.  E.  badge. 
Coffin  and  I  were  both  captured  and  spent  nine 
months  together  in  Libby  Prison.  I  was  then  ex- 
changed and  Coffin  stayed  nearly  a  year  longer. 
I  believe  that  the  Lieutenant-Colonel's  badge 
was  sent  to  his  brother. 

"  The  field  officers  dismounted  before  going 
into  this  fight.  Colonel  Brown  was  in  com- 


230  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

mand.  Colonel  Arrowsmith  was  in  his  place 
and  in  the  line  of  duty  when  killed.  No  braver 
or  cooler  man  ever  breathed.  '  Why  were  we  in 
such  an  exposed  position  ? '  We  were  ordered 
to  advance,  and  receiving  no  order  to  retire,  we 
kept  advancing.  The  General  sent  an  aide  with 
orders  for  us  to  retreat,  but  his  horse  was  shot 
under  him  and  he  was  delayed  in  giving  us  the 
order.  In  the  meantime  Colonel  Brown,  seeing 
the  advance  of  rebel  troops  along  the  Carlisle 
road,  ordered  us  to  change  front.  Then  receiv- 
ing orders  to  retreat,  we  did  retreat. 

"  Now  I  have  given  you  briefly  an  account  of 
Colonel  Arrowsmith's  death,  etc.  A  captain  in 
command  of  his  company  has  all  he  can  do  in 
that  line.  He  has  no  time  to  take  in  the  whole 
plan  of  battle,  and  hence  I  may  not  be  able  to 
give  all  that  transpired,  but  I  have  done  this  as 
faithfully  as  I  can.  There  are  many  things  I 
might  say  with  regard  to  Colonel  Arrowsmith's 
character,  if  my  pen  were  adequate.  Let  me 
say  that  no  officer  of  the  One  Hundred  and 
Fifty-seventh  Regiment  enjoyed  the  confidence 
and  respect  of  the  men  in  a  greater  degree  than 
did  Lieutenant  Colonel  George  Arrowsmith." 

The  field  officers  of  the  One  Hundred  and 
Fifty-seventh  Regiment  on  the  morning  of  the 
first  of  July,  1863,  Colonel  Place  states,  were  as 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARKOWSMITH.  221 

follows:  P.  P.  Brown,  Jr.,  colonel,  command- 
ing; George  Arrowsmith,  lieutenant  -  colonel ; 
J.  C.  Carmichael,  major  on  the  staff  of  General 
Schurtz.  After  the  death  of  Colonel  Arrow- 
smith,  Major  Carmichael  was  promoted  to  the 
vacant  Lieutenant-Colonelcy  and  Captain  Place 
was  commissioned  major  early  in  1865.  Colonel 
Brown  resigned  to  take  a  command  in  General 
Hancock's  veteran  corps.  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Carmichael  was  commissioned  colonel  and  Major 
Place  was  commissioned  lieutenant-colonel  of 
the  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-seventh  Regiment, 
but  neither  of  the  last  two  were  ever  mustered 
into  the  rank  to  which  they  had  been  commis- 
sioned. 

"When  the  regiment  reached  town,"  says 
Colonel  Place,  "  we  found  the  east  portion  of 
the  village  already  in  possession  of  the  confed- 
erate troops  and  pressing  close  on  the  west. 
Many  were  captured  in  the  town.  General 
Schimmelfenning,  commanding  the  brigade, 
concealed  himself  in  a  woodpile  and  remained 
there  until  the  evacuation  on  the  morning  of  the 
fourth  day." 

That  portion  of  the  First  and  Eleventh  Corps 
which  escaped,  made  a  stand  on  Cemetery  Hill. 
Meade's  army  got  into  position  that  night  from 
Gulp's  Hill  to  Round  Top,  and  the  next  day  the 


222  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

battle  began  on  more  equal  terms,  with  the  re- 
sult that  the  world  knows. 

The  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-seventh  Regi- 
ment was  almost  annihilated.  Its  loss  was  as 
follows  :  Killed — four  officers  and  twenty-three 
enlisted  men  ;  wounded — eight  officers  and  one 
hundred  and  fifty-eight  enlisted  men  ;  captured 
— six  officers  and  one  hundred  and  eight  enlisted 
men.  Aggregate  of  killed,  wounded  and  cap- 
tured, three  hundred  and  seven,  out  of  about 
three  hundred  and  fifty  with  which  it  entered 
the  battle.* 

Lieutenant  Coffin,  the  wounded  officer  who 
went  to  the  assistance  of  Colonel  Arrowsmith 
after  he  fell,  besides  the  Delta  Kappa  Epsilon 
badge,  took  possession  of  some  other  articles  of 
property  found  upon  his  person  and  which  he 
knew  would  be  cherished  as  relics  of  the  dying 
hero.  Among  these  were  his  revolver,  his 
shoulder  straps,  and  a  little  book  stained  with 
his  blood  entitled,  "  A  Memorial  of  Adjutant 
Bacon,"  which  on  a  fly-leaf  bore  the  following 
inscription:  "To  my  esteemed  friend,  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  George  Arrowsmith,  a  beloved  associate 
and  companion  in  arms  of  my  brave  and  loyal 
son,  this  memorial  of  him  is  presented  by  the 
author,  June,  1863."  These  he  sacredly  guarded 


*  Appendix,  Note  G. 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  223 

during  his  captivity,  until  opportunity  was  found 
to  forward  them  to  the  parents  of  the  deceased. 
One  of  the  shoulder  straps  had  been  cut  by  a 
rifle  ball  in  the  battle,  causing  a  slight  abrasion 
of  the  shoulder,  evidencing  the  terrific  character 
of  the  enemy's  fire ;  but  before  Lieutenant 
Coffin  had  secured  these  relics,  a  wounded  pri- 
vate had  taken  the  ring  from  Colonel  Arrow- 
smith's  finger,  and  his  purse  from  his  pocket, 
containing  about  one  hundred  and  sixty  dollars. 
As  the  field  was  in  the  possession  of  the  enemy, 
he  saw  no  harm  in  taking  this  property  from  the 
dead  officer,  as  they  were  sure  to  be  taken  and 
confiscated  by  the  enemy.  The  harm  lay  in 
the  criminal  appropriation  of  the  property  thus 
secured.  The  wounded  culprit  found  his  way 
to  a  Newark  military  hospital.  He  gave  the 
empty  purse  to  a  fellow  soldier,  with  the  remark, 
"  If  you  knew  who  it  belonged  to  you  would 
prize  it."  He  also  exhibited  the  ring  upon  his 
finger,  remarking  that  "he  thought  a  great  deal 
of  it,  for  it  belonged  to  the  best  man  in  his  regi- 
ment." These  facts  having  been  reported,  earn- 
est efforts  were  made  to  obtain  the  property. 
Finally,  by  the  effective  exertions  of  Marcus  L. 
Ward,  afterwards  Governor  of  New  Jersey,  a 
confession  was  extorted  from  the  criminal.  The 
money  he  had  spent,  with  the  exception  of  about 
seventy-five  dollars,  which  was  restored,  and  the 


224  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

ring,  though  it  had  been  given  away,  was  re- 
covered. 

The  sword  presented  to  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Arrowsmith  by  his  men  when  he  was  Captain  of 
Company  D,  Twenty-sixth  New  York  Regiment, 
has  a  history.  At  his  promotion,  having  no  fur- 
ther personal  use  for  it,  he  loaned  it  to  his  friend , 
Byron  S.  Fitch,  Second  Lieutenant  Company 
C,  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-seventh  New  York 
Volunteers,  who  carried  it  in  the  battle  of 
Gettysburg.  When  he  saw  the  certainty  of  his 
capture  by  the  enemy,  he  buried  it  in  an  ash-heap 
in  the  street  at  Gettysburg.  He  was  captured, 
but  succeeded  in  escaping  before  the  evacuation 
of  the  town.  After  the  retreat  of  the  confeder- 
ates, he  returned  to  the  ash-heap  and  recovered 
the  hidden  treasure. 

Upon  receiving  the  sorrowful  news  of  his 
brother's  decease,  Dr.  Joseph  E.  Arrowsmith 
hastened  to  the  scene  of  the  late  conflict.  Arriv- 
ing at  Baltimore  on  the  Fourth  of  July,  he  was 
subjected  to  much  delay  and  difficulty  in  reach- 
ing Gettysburg,  as  all  lines  of  travel  were  sub- 
ordinated to  military  authority,  and  transporta- 
tion to  civilians  was  denied.  He  did  not  reach 
the  battle  ground  until  late  the  following  week, 
whence  he  proceeded  to  the  hospital  of  the 
Eleventh  Army  Corps,  two  miles  south  of  Gettys- 
burg, to  obtain  information  respecting  the  place 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  225 

of  burial  of  his  brother.  Of  this  visit  the  New 
York  Herald  related  the  following  incident  in  an 
obituary  notice  of  the  deceased  : 

"  A  touching  incident  which  occurred  well 
illustrates  the  estimation  in  which  the  deceased 
was  held  by  officers  and  men.  It  was  in  the 
hospital  of  the  Eleventh  Army  Corps,  about  two 
miles  south  of  Gettysburg.  The  surgeons  were 
working  hard  with  the  wounded,  many  of  whom 
had  been  four  or  five  days  awaiting  surgical  aid. 
Of  course  they  were  anxiously  looking  for  re- 
lief. A  private  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Fifty- 
seventh  New  York,  after  so  long  waiting,  had 
now  reached  his  turn,  and  was  just  going  to 
be  laid  on  the  operator's  table.  Hearing  that 
friends  of  his  late  Lieutenant-Colonel  were  in- 
quiring where  the  body  fell  and  was  buried,  he 
at  once  volunteered  to  go  and  show  them.  Of 
course  the  offer  of  the  noble  hearted  man  was 
not  accepted.  Instantly  Captain  Adams,  who 
had  just  been  taken  off  the  operator's  table, 
where  he  had  had  a  ball  extracted,  which,  after  a 
circuitous  route,  had  lodged  under  the  shoulder 
blade,  tendered  his  services  to  point  out  the 
place.  And  in  this  condition  he  went." 

The  body  was  exhumed,  and  decomposition 
had  progressed  to  an  extent  that  rendered  neces- 


226  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  AEROWSMITH. 

sary  a  metallic  coffin.  The  supply  of  these  in 
Gettysburg  and  Baltimore  was  unequal  to  the 
demand.  The  doctor  was  compelled  to  go  back 
to  New  York  for  the  purpose  of  procuring  one  ; 
and  then  returning,  he  caused  the  remains  to  be 
forwarded  to  Middletown,  New  Jersey. 


FUNERAL    OBSEQUIES. 

"  I  ^HE  funeral  obsequies  were  held  in  the  Bap- 
tist  Church  of  Middletown,  on  Sunday, 
July  26th,  1863,  at  half-past  three  o'clock.  The 
weather  was  propitious,  and  the  assembled 
throng  was  so  great  that  but  a  small  part  could 
find  accommodation  within  the  church  edifice. 
The  Brigade  Board  of  Monmouth  and  Ocean 
Counties  was  present  in  full  uniform  without 
side  arms.  An  impressive  sermon  was  delivered 
by  the  Rev.  David  B.  Stout,*  and  an  obituary 
notice,  rendering  tribute  to  the  exalted  character 
of  the  deceased,  was  read  by  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Samuel  Lockwood.  After  the  service  the  re- 
mains were  interred  at  Fair  View  cemetery  in 
Middletown  township.  Quite  extended  obituary 


*  Appendix,  Note  A. 


238  LIEUTEXANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

notices  of  a  highly  eulogistic  character  appeared 
in  the  newspapers  of  Madison,  Cortland,  and 
Chemung  Counties  of  New  York,  and  Monmouth 
County,  New  Jersey  ;  also  in  the  daily  papers  of 
New  York  City,  Washington  and  Philadelphia. 
Resolutions  of  condolence  and  respect  were 
adopted  by  the  Brigade  Board  of  Monmouth 
and  Ocean  Counties,*  and  by  the  Class  of  '59  of 
Madison  University,f  of  which  the  deceased  was 
a  member,  at  the  Commencement  following  his 
death.  In  commemoration  of  his  virtues  and 
noble  deeds  a  monument  of  Quincy  granite  was 
erected  over  his  remains.  It  bears  the  following 
inscription  : 

LT.  COL.  GEORGE  ARROWSMITH, 

ONE  HUNDRED  AND  FIFTY-SEVENTH  NEW  YORK 
VOLUNTEERS. 

He  bore  a  distinguished  part  in  several  severe  engage- 
ments, and  fell  at  Gettysburg  gallantly  leading  his  Regi- 
ment, July  ist,  1863,  aged  24  years,  2  months,  13  days. 

Erected  by  his  numerous  friends  in  token  of  his  personal 
worth,  patriotic  devotion,  and  distinguished  bravery. 

The  devoted  regiment  and  his  college  asso- 
ciates made  generous  contributions  towards  its 
expense  as  a  tribute  of  their  love. 


*  Appendix,  Note  H.    t  Note  I. 


TRIBUTE  FROM  COLONEL  PLACE. 

«  PUNCTILIOUS  in  all  that  appertained  to 
military  discipline  and  etiquette  in  the 
line  of  duty,  he  could  meet  the  humblest  private 
soldier  at  other  times  on  terms  of  equality.  He 
was  in  no  sense  a  martinet.  He  was  modest 
without  being  weak,  conscious  of  his  personality 
and  power,  without  being  arrogant  and  obtru- 
sive. 

"  I  soon  learned  that  there  were  ties  which 
bound  me  to  him  other  than  those  of  a  common 
humanity  or  loyalty  to  the  flag  we  had  both 
sworn  to  defend  ;  that  we  were  members  of  the 
same  college  fraternity.  To  us  twain  fraternity, 
charity  and  loyalty  had  a  twofold  meaning. 

"  He  possessed  all  the  qualities  of  a  thorough 
disciplinarian,  and  held  the  line  officers  to  a 
strict  accountability  for  their  conduct  in  the 


230  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL   ARROWSM1TH. 

presence  of  their  men  in  all  the  minor  duties  of 
camp,  bivouac,  or  drill.  He  never  publicly  re- 
proved an  officer,  but  sought  the  retirement  of 
his  tent  to  administer  a  rebuke  for  any  un- 
soldierly  conduct.  The  peculiar  bond  between 
him  and  myself  above  referred  to  did  not  in  the 
least  exempt  me  from  receiving  deserved  re- 
proof. He  thoroughly  believed  in  the  potent 
influence  of  example  upon  the  rank  and  file  set 
by  those  in  authority  over  them.  This  principle 
he  exemplified  at  all  times,  and  in  all  places.  It 
is  an  historical  fact  that  at  Chancellorsville  our 
army  was  surprised.  The  enemy  made  their 
attack  from  the  direction  not  contemplated,  and 
hence  we  were  in  no  position  to  repel. 

"  The  result  was  a  defeat.  This  was  the  first 
general  engagement  in  which  my  regiment  had 
participated.  The  attack  came  suddenly  and 
with  overpowering  effect,  yet  I  can  confidently 
assert  that  it  was  largely  through  Colonel  Arrow- 
smith's  coolness  and  self-possession  that  we  re- 
treated from  that  ill-fated  field  in  so  good  order 
and  with  so  little  loss  of  life.  Our  next  general 
engagement  was  at  Gettysburg,  Pennsylvania, 
July  ist,  1863.  Here  Colonel  Arrowsmith  dis- 
played the  same  courageous  qualities  that  dis- 
tinguished him  at  Chancellorsville.  He  died  as 
he  would  have  chosen  to  die  if  so  willed,  with 
his  face  towards  the  foe.  Thus  he  filled  the  full 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  231 

measure  of  devotion  to  his  country,  by  the  sac- 
rifice not  only  of  the  hopes  and  aspirations  of  the 
cultured  and  refined  gentleman,  but  of  life  it- 
self." 

Colonel  Place  addressed  the  Arrowsmith  Post 
as  follows  : 

"Comrades  of  Arrowsmith  Post,  Department  of  New 
Jersey,  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic : 
"  You  acted  wisely  when  you  decided  upon 
the  name  of  your  Post.     The  name  of  George 
Arrowsmith  is  enshrined  in  the  hearts  of  his  sur- 
viving comrades.     No  words   of  mine  can  add 
lustre  to  his  renown.     I  can  only  exhort  you  to 
emulate  his  patriotic  devotion  to  the  cause  of 
your  country's  welfare  and  prosperity." 


CONCLUSION. 


T^HUS  lived  and  died  Lieutenant  -  Colonel 
George  Arrowsmith  at  the  early  age  of 
twenty-four  years.  While  full  maturity  of  char- 
acter had  not  been  attained,  yet  there  was  ex- 
hibited a  sound  and  vigorous  growth,  beautiful 
in  its  symmetry,  and  towering  in  its  aspirations. 
Though  falling  in  the  springtime  of  life,  he  did 
not  live  in  vain.  The  principle  for  which  he 
grasped  his  sword  was  vindicated.  The  rebellion 
was  crushed  and  constitutional  liberty  was  pre- 
served. It  was  he  in  common  with  other  brave 
hearts  and  strong  arms  who  accomplished  this 
great  result.  He  lived  long  enough  to  share  in 
the  glorious  work  and  to  render  brilliantly  con- 
spicuous the  virtues  of  his  noble  character. 

He   gave    his   all  to   his   country,    cultivated 
talents,   alluring  prospects    in   civil   pursuits,   a 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  233 

young  life  ;  as  a  patriot  he  could  have  done  no 
more.  Of  his  courage  I  need  not  speak.  It  is 
attested  by  heroic  deeds  on  several  battle-fields, 
which  are  at  once  his  monuments  and  his  eu- 
logies. 

In  manhood  he  was  the  soul  of  honor,  with  an 
innate  contempt  for  whatever  was  mean  or  in- 
triguing. He  possessed  a  high  sense  of  duty 
which  characterized  his  whole  life,  a  steady  pur- 
pose to  do  what  he  believed  to  be  right.  He 
honored  his  father  and  mother,  and  in  the  sacred 
precincts  of  his  own  home  he  was  the  light  and 
joy  of  their  hearts. 

There  was  no  gulf  between  him  and  others  of 
less  favored  position.  He  had  no  snobbish  pride 
or  silly  vanity.  Here  he  was  the  idol  of  the 
volunteer  soldier.  He  possessed  a  dignity  in 
bearing  and  a  gravity  in  repose,  but  when  ap- 
proached his  genial  salutation  relieved  all  un- 
certainty. He  was  proud,  but  it  was  the  honor- 
able pride  born  of  true  nobility  of  character. 
He  was  ambitious,  but  it  was  the  laudable  am- 
bition to  excel  in  good  works  and  deeds. 

In  conversation  and  social  intercourse  he  was 
refined  and  courteous.  A  coarse  or  profane  ex- 
pression never  fell  from  his  lips.  It  was  a  strong 
point  made  in  one  of  the  testimonials  presented 
to  Governor  Morgan  recommending  his  pro- 


234  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  AKROWSMITH. 

motion,  that  he  was  an  officer  who  never  used 
profane  language. 

His  knowledge  of  history  and  general  English 
literature  was  extensive.  He  had  a  good  mem- 
ory, keen  perceptions  and  a  pleasant  vein  of 
humor.  To  these  he  united  gifts  of  soul  that 
enabled  him  to  bind  to  his  heart  all  who  knew 
him  with  bands  of  steel. 

His  patriotism  was  not  the  enthusiasm  of  the 
hour  to  be  chilled  by  the  first  reverse  or  defeat. 
It  was  a  settled  determination,  a  firm  conviction, 
that  underlying  the  contest  was  a  great  moral 
principle.  Scenes  of  peril,  of  exposure,  of  ex- 
ertion, he  encountered  without  a  murmur.  Nor 
did  he  entertain  a  thought  of  terminating  his 
military  career  before  the  end  of  the  war.  To 
the  advice  of  a  friend  that  he  should  limit  his 
term  of  service,  his  reply  was  that  "  as  long  as 
the  war  lasts,  I  will  serve  my  country." 

His  natural  qualities  were  conspicuously  mani- 
fested in  his  army  life.  From  the  patient  and 
painstaking  student  he  became  a  thorough  in- 
structor and  tactician  in  camp.  From  a  genial 
companion  in  society  he  passed  as  the  type  of 
good  fellowship  by  the  camp-fire.  His  gentle 
and  sympathetic  nature  endeared  him  to  the 
victims  of  pain  and  suffering.  Favored  with  a 
strong  physical  organization,  he  could  endure 
hardships  without  exhaustion.  Possessed  of 


LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH.  235 

great  moral  pride,  he  was  a  lion  in  danger,  and 
his  natural  impetuosity  made  him  a  thunderbolt 
in  battle. 

It  is  idle  to  speculate  upon  what  he  might  have 
been  had  his  life  been  spared.  We  accept  him 
with  admiration  and  gratitude  for  what  he  was. 
Enlisting  as  a  mere  boy,  without  rank,  he  was 
at  once  unanimously  chosen  by  his  fellow  volun- 
teers as  the  commandant  of  the  company.  In 
one  year,  for  merit,  he  was  promoted  to  the  office 
of  Assistant  Adjutant-General  upon  the  staff 
of  General  Tower,  upon  the  recommendation 
of  the  Division  Commander,  General  Ricketts. 
Without  leaving  the  army,  he  was  elevated  to  the 
field  office  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  by  the  Gov- 
ernor of  New  York,  who  was  thus  prompted  by 
the  fame  of  the  soldier,  and  was  only  restrained 
from  appointing  him  Colonel  by  his  generous 
refusal  to  accept  the  position  over  a  friend.  On 
the  eve  of  Gettysburg  his  comrades  urged  his 
higher  promotion,  with  flattering  testimonials 
from  persons  of  distinguished  military  rank,  but 
here  was  ended  his  rising  career.  It  was  an 
honorable  death,  and  his  epitaph  is  briefly  writ- 
ten :  a  sterling  soldier,  a  true  patriot,  and  a 
brave  man. 


APPENDIX. 


NOTE    A. 

A  sermon  by  the  Rev.  David  B.  Stout  on  the  occasion 
of  the  funeral  of  the  late  Lieutenant-Colonel  George  Ar- 
rowsmith.  Text,  II  Samuel,  chapter  xix,  verse  2.  "And 
the  victory  that  day  was  turned  into  mourning  unto  all 
the  people." 

It  is  a  fact  attested  by  universal  experience,  that  by 
sympathy  a  man  may  receive  into  his  own  affectionate 
feelings  a  measure  of  the  distress  of  his  friend,  and  that 
his  friend  does  find  himself  relieved  in  the  same  pro- 
portion as  the  other  has  entered  into  his  grief.  From 
the  language  of  the  text  I  would  call  your  attention  to 
the  duty  of  Christian  sympathy  toward  the  bereaved. 

There  is  in  the  heart  of  man  a  generous  sympathy  for 
man.  By  sympathy  is  meant  fellow-feeling — the  quality 
of  being  affected  by  feelings  similar  to  those  of  another. 
By  observing  the  operations  of  our  own  minds,  we  shall 
discover  the  existence  of  this  principle,  and  become  con- 
vinced that  it  is  a  distinct  element  of  human  nature. 


238  APPENDIX. 

A  smile  upon  the  countenance  of  a  friend  excites  one 
upon  our  own.  The  depiction  of  sorrow  and  deep  dejec- 
tion upon  the  visage  of  a  fellow  being,  measurably  pro- 
duces to  some  extent  similar  feelings  in  our  own  hearts. 
If  we  are  present  on  occasions  of  peculiar  joy  to  our 
friends,  we,  by  the  sympathy  of  our  nature,  partake  of 
that  joy.  No  one  with  a  full  knowledge  of  the  circum- 
stances could  have  witnessed  the  countenance  of  the 
venerable  patriarch  brightening  with  a  beam  of  joy,  as 
he  listened  to  the  narration  of  his  sons,  late  from  Egypt, 
and  lifted  up  his  eyes  and  saw  the  wagons  sent  for  his 
accommodation,  and  heard  him  in  the  exuberance  of 
paternal  joy  exclaim,  "  It  is  enough,  Joseph,  my  son,  is 
yet  alive,  I  will  go  and  see  him  before  I  die,"  without 
having  felt  the  movings  of  inward  sympathy  and  a  thrill 
of  sadness.  Our  grief  is  also  excised  by  witnessing  the 
grief  of  others.  Visit  the  dwelling  of  a  respected  ac- 
quaintance; enter  the  apartment  where  with  esteemed 
friends  and  a  beloved  family  you  have  been  accustomed 
to  spend  the  social  hour.  Beside  the  farthermost  wall  of 
that  apartment,  fix  your  eyes  upon  the  concealed  form  of 
one  whom  conjugal  and  paternal  fidelity  the  day  previ- 
ous had  employed  in  the  active  duties  of  life.  Approach, 
withdraw  the  covering  which  conceals  the  well-known 
features  of  your  friend,  still  unchanged,  and  perfect  in 
their  form,  save  that  the  eye  has  gathered  dimness,  and 
closed  itself  upon  the  world  forever,  and  the  livid  hue  has 
given  place  to  a  death-like  paleness.  With  the  disclosure 
of  those  familiar  features,  listen  to  th"e  sobs  of  the  new 
made  widow  and  orphan  children.  Witness  the  deep 
and  irrepressible  agony  of  a  bereaved  heart,  venting  it- 
self in  a  flood  of  tears,  and  the  sympathies  of  your 
nature  will  be  awakened  and  you  will  heave  an  involun- 
tary sigh,  and  drop  a  spontaneous  tear. 


APPENDIX.  239 

This  element  of  our  nature  is  an  endowment  of  crea- 
tive wisdom  and  goodness;  it  subserves  valuable  pur- 
poses and  aids  in  the  performance  of  essential  duties; 
it  is  adapted  to  the  social  nature  of  man,  and  is  promo- 
tive  of  the  social  virtues;  it  awakens  in  the  different 
members  of  the  human  family  a  reciprocal  interest  in 
each  other's  welfare,  chastened  by  pure  religion;  it  "re- 
joices with  those  who  rejoice,  and  weeps  with  those  who 
weep;"  it  fosters  kindness,  generosity  and  benevolence, 
but  is  pained  to  witness  suffering  in  any  form,  and  un- 
happy as  it  listens  to  the  tale  of  war;  it  is  aroused  into 
vigorous  action  by  unexpected  and  disastrous  events,  by 
which*  aggravated  suffering  is  produced,  and  the  lives  of 
our  fellow  beings  lost.  The  text  expresses  its  language 
on  such  an  occasion.  In  the  fortunes  of  war  David's  son 
had  fallen,  and  though  the  circumstances  of  his  rebellion 
and  his  death  were  such  as  would  seem  to  destroy  the 
exercise  of  sympathy,  yet  the  event  has  fully  proven  that 
the  parental  relation  rises  superior  to  all  others;  for  as 
the  men  of  Judah  marched  out  of  the  gate  of  the  city  of 
Mahamin,  in  companies  of  hundreds  and  of  thousands, 
led  by  their  Commander  Joab,  David  stood  by  the  gate 
and  said,  "  Deal  gently  with  the  young  man,  even  with 
Absalom."  And  all  the  people  heard  when  the  King  gave 
all  the  captains  charge  concerning  Absalom.  How  strong 
is  the  bond  of  parental  affection  !  David,  by  the  skill 
and  valor  of  his  troops,  had  gained  a  complete  victory; 
nothing  could  be  more  seasonable  or  important.  It 
crushed  the  wide-spread  rebellion  and  reduced  his  sub- 
jects to  allegiance.  But  behold  the  King  !  All  suspense, 
sitting  between  the  two  gates  waiting  for  intelligence. 
Two  messengers  run  to  announce  the  victory.  The  first 
said  "  all  is  well."  Which  was  saying  the  victory  is  ours  ! 
our  foes  are  subdued  !  That  was  very  important.  But 


240  APPENDIX. 

another  inquiry  lying  deep  down  in  his  anxious  spirit, 
breaks  forth  from  his  lips.  "  Is  the  young  man  Absalom 
safe  ?"  This  was  a  question  too  great  for  the  moral  cour- 
age of  the  messenger,  and  he  evades  it. 

The  second  messenger  has  now  arrived.  "Tidings, 
my  Lord,  the  King,  for  the  Lord  hath  avenged  thee  this 
day  of  all  them  that  rose  up  against  thee."  But  his  heart 
is  still  bursting  with  anxiety  for  a  reply  to  his  unanswered 
question,  hence  he  repeats  it.  "  Is  the  young  man  Ab- 
salom safe?"  And  Cushi  said,  "The  enemies  of  my 
Lord,  the  King,  and  all  that  rise  against  thee  to  do  thee 
hurt,  be  as  that  young  man  is."  Nothing  could  have 
been  more  wise  or  delicate  than  the  manner  in  which  the 
truth  was  insinuated  !  But  like  a  sword,  it  pierced 
through  David's  soul  and  the  King  was  much  moved, 
and  went  up  to  the  chamber  over  the  gate  and  wept; 
and  as  he  went,  thus  he  said,  "  O  my  son  Absalom  !  My 
son,  my  son  Absalom  !  would  God  I  had  died  for  thee. 
()  Absalom,  my  son,  my  son  !  " 

David  stood  in  a  double  relation;  he  was  not  only  a 
King,  but  a  father;  and  though  Absalom  had  been  an  un- 
dutiful  child,  still  he  was  a  child;  and  for  a  child  to  be 
cut  off,  not  only  in  the  midst  of  his  days,  but  in  the  midst 
of  his  sins,  was  painful  in  the  extreme.  Excuse  or  con- 
demn David  for  his  conduct  on  this  occasion,  the  event 
is  the  same;  "And  the  victory  that  day  was  turned  into 
mourning  unto  all  the  people." 

Secondly — this  is  true,  to  a  certain  extent,  of  every 
national  victory.  When  two  large  armies  are  drawn  up 
in  battle  array,  with  all  their  improved  appliances  of  death 
and  slaughter,  to  use  the  language  of  Scripture,  "The 
land  mourns."  Fields  are  ravaged,  fences  destroyed, 
houses  demolished,  women  and  children  fly.  Mournful 
is  the  infliction  of  pain,  while  thousands  are  agonizing 


APPENDIX.  241 

together  upon  the  gory  field,  where  they  often  lie  for 
hours  or  even  days,  with  their  wounds  undressed  and 
bleeding,  exposed  to  the  martial  tramp  of  an  infuriated 
foe.  Mournful  is  the  loss  of  limbs.  How  we  feel  when 
a  neighbor  by  disease  or  accident,  is  compelled  to  submit 
to  a  single  amputation.  How  many  subjects  for  amputa- 
tion are  furnished  by  a  single  victory  !  How  many,  after 
enduring  the  most  excruciating  sufferings,  are  maimed 
and  rendered  helpless  and  miserable  the  remainder  of 
their  days.  Mournful  is  the  loss  of  life,  for  wher;  is  the 
human  being  who  is  not  of  importance  to  some  one? 
How  many  a  poor  widow,  whose  name  will  never  be  an- 
nounced in  the  public  papers,  is  now  weeping  over  a  hus- 
band she  will  see  no  more  !  How  many  an  orphan  is 
now  crying  "  My  father  !  O  my  father  !  "  but  that  father 
sleeps  on  the  gory  field  of  death,  and  will  never  again 
caress  the  loved  ones  he  has  left  behind.  O,  how  many 
fathers  are  this  day  saying,  "  Would  God  I  had  died  for 
thee,  O  my  son  !  " 

Mournful,  above  all,  is  the  loss  of  souls  !  We  are  far 
from  supposing  that  all  warfare  is  unlawful,  and  that  a 
good  man  cannot  be  a  soldier.  Who  has  not  read  the 
life  of  Colonel  Gardiner,  slain  in  battle  at  Prestonpans? 
Was  there  ever  a  mind  more  purely  and  ardently  pious? 
A  man  may  ascend  to  heaven  from  the  field  of  battle,  but 
the  moral  state  of  our  armies  is  too  well  known  to  be  a 
secret  !  At  any  time  the  generality  of  those  who  com- 
pose them  are  not  prepared  to  die.  How  dreadfully  af- 
fecting then,  is  it,  to  think  of  so  many  of  our  fellow 
creatures  being  cut  off  in  a  moment,  and  sent  with  all 
their  sins  upon  them,  to  appear  before  the  Judge  of  all? 
So  many  ways  is  victory  turned  into  mourning. 

Memorable  in  the  annals  of  history  will  be  the  victory 
at  Gettysburg,  Pennsylvania.  Who  can  deny  that  its 


242  APPENDIX. 

unexampled  suffering  has  spread  a  gloom  over  our  whole 
country,  and  excited  a  deep  and  heartfelt  sympathy  for 
the  unfortunate  victims  and  their  bereaved  friends  ? 
By  it,  the  hearts  of  many  parents,  brothers,  sisters, 
companions  and  friends,  have  been  filled  with  sadness. 
Religious,  literary,  and  other  associations  have  sustained 
a  severe  loss;  and  neighborhoods,  towns,  and  the  country 
at  large,  have  been  bereaved.  The  scenes  of  that  event 
have  made  a  thrilling  appeal  to  the  sympathies  of  this 
community. 

They  have  shrouded  in  mourning  a  respected  family 
in  our  midst,  and  to  them  cast  a  fearful  pall  over  the  joys 
of  earth.  They  have  removed  forever  from  our  sight  an 
acquaintance  and  esteemed  friend,  whose  early  years 
were  passed  among  us;  who  had  often  been  a  worshipper 
in  this  sanctuary;  whose  voice  has  often  mingled  with 
this  choir,  in  the  praise  of  God;  one  whose  excellent 
qualities  had  secured  for  him  the  confidence  and  warm 
attachment  of  friends  and  relatives,  and  the  respect  of  all 
who  knew  him. 

Yes,  among  the  thousands  who  fell  upon  that  field  of 
slaughter  and  death  was  Lieutenant-Colonel  George  Ar- 
rowsmith.  By  this  afflictive  and  painful  dispensation, 
not  only  have  relatives  been  bereaved,  but  an  extensive 
circle  of  acquaintances,  who  valued  his  friendship,  en- 
joyed his  society,  respected  his  worth  and  entertained 
high  expectations  of  his  future  usefulness,  have  been 
filled  with  unaffected  sorrow.  This  affliction  addresses  it- 
self to  all  who  have  been  personal  friends  of  the  deceased. 
Strong  are  the  ties  of  affection  and  friendship.  From  the 
stroke  that  sunders  those  ties,  the  heart  recoils  in  untold 
agony.  We  hear  of  the  death  of  an  acquaintance  and  are 
sad.  But  when  we  know  that  a  friend  whom  we  loved 
and  esteemed,  and  whose  society  and  counsels  we  highly 


APPENDIX.  243 

prized,  is  no  more,  a  tide  of  sorrow  o'erflows  our  hearts; 
but  most  of  all,  are  we  affected  by  b$ing  relatives  of  the 
deceased.  The  common  parent  of  mankind  has  estab- 
lished the  endearing  relation  of  kindred,  from  which 
spring  the  warmest,  deepest  and  purest  affections  known 
on  earth.  Others  have  their  attachments,  but  not  like 
those  who  are  bound  together  by  the  strong  ties  of  con- 
sanguinity. The  distress  occasioned  to  survivors  by 
the  stroke  of  death  is  proportionate  to  the  strength  and 
ardor  of  their  affections  !  We,  who  are  only  acquaint- 
ances of  the  departed,  are  filled  with  sadness  at  the  tid- 
ings ,of  his  melancholy  fate,  but  of  the  sorrows  of  his  af- 
flicted and  bereaved  relatives,  parents,  brothers  and  sis- 
ters, we  can  have  no  adequate  conception.  The  depths  of 
their  hearts  are  stirred;  the  fountains  of  their  sympathies 
are  broken  up. 

Among  the  most  endearing  relations  of  human  life  is 
that  of  parent  and  child;  their  affections  are  reciprocal; 
that  of  a  parent,  for  wise  purposes,  is  doubtless  the 
stronger.  The  child  weeps  at  the  loss  of  the  parent,  but 
at  the  loss  of  the  child  the  parent  is  filled  with  irrepressi- 
ble and  oftentimes  inconsolable  grief.  The  general  in- 
fanticide in  Bethlehem,  which  occurred  under  the  reign  of 
Herod,  is  symbolically  represented  by  a  paroxysm  of  ma- 
ternal anguish;  in  Rama  there  was  heard  a  loud  lamenta- 
tion and  weeping  and  great  mourning;  when  the  patriarch 
Jacob  felt  the  sadness  of  such  a  bereavement,  in  vain  did 
his  sons  rise  up  to  comfort  him.  He  refused  to  be  com- 
forted and  said,  "  I  will  go  down  to  the  grave  to  my  son 
in  mourning."  The  poignancy  of  grief  with  which  King 
David  mourned  for  an  undutiful  son,  who  died  in  an  at- 
tempt against  his  father's  life,  we  have  already  mentioned. 
I  will  not  mock  the  feelings  of  bereaved  parents  and  rel- 
atives by  attempting  to  give  a  description  of  their  sor- 


244  APPENDIX. 

rows.  Should  I  make  the  attempt,  the  most  expressive 
language  I  could  employ,  would  do  injustice  to  my 
theme.  These  sorrows  can  be  known  only  to  the  Om- 
nipresent God,  and  the  hearts  that  feel  them. 

Again  the  agreeableness  of  departed  friends  is  another 
circumstance  which  heightens  the  pain  of  bereavement. 
One  reason  of  David's  distress  at  the  death  of  his  friend 
Jonathan,  is  expressed  in  the  words,  "Very  pleasant 
hast  thou  been  to  me."  Valuable  and  agreeable  qualities 
in  our  friends,  endear  them  to  our  hearts  and  render 
our  separation  more  painful.  Those  who  were  acquainted 
with  the  departed  know  him  to  have  been  a  kind  friend 
and  an  agreeable  associate  ;  possessed  of  more  than  ordi- 
nary natural  abilities,  a  highly  cultivated  mind  united 
with  his  practical  good  sense,  acute  discernment,  sound 
judgment,  and  Christian  morality.  These,  like  a  beau- 
tiful constellation,  shed  their  mild  radiance  around  and 
won  for  him  the  respect  and  love  of  a  wide  circle  of 
friends  and  acquaintances,  who  had  indulged  the  hope 
that  his  future  might  be  honorable,  happy  and  exten- 
sively useful  to  his  fellow  men. 

No  more  on  the  shores  of  time  we  shall  meet  our  friend. 
We  have  often  met  him  and  exchanged  our  cordial  greet- 
ings, we  have  loved  his  society,  valued  his  friendship; 
but  never  again  shall  we  enjoy  them  here.  For  the  last 
time  has  he  visited  his  native  home!  We  sympathize 
with  the  Elders  and  Christians  at  Ephesus,  who  wept 
and  fell  on  Paul's  neck,  sorrowing  most  of  all  for  the 
words  which  he  spake  unto  them  !  That  they  should  see 
his  face  no  more  ! 

Lamented  friend  and  brother,  thine  earthly  race  is 
run.  Thy  mortal  course  is  finished.  Thy  sun  has  fallen 
before  it  reached  its  meridian  altitude.  Thy  warfare  is 
accomplished.  Thy  tears  are  wiped  away.  Thou  hast 


APPENDIX.  245 

entered  that  world  where  wars  shall  never  come,  and 
"  Where  the  wicked  cease  from  troubling,  and  the  weary 
are  at  rest."  We  bid  thee  farewell  !  But  thy  memory 
embalmed  in  the  tears  and  affections  of  weeping  kindred 
and  sorrowing  friends  shall  still  live. 

To  soothe  the  sorrows  of  this  mournful  event  let  us  re- 
flect: First— that  it  occurred  under  the  immediate  super- 
vision of  an  All  Wise  Providence.  Jehovah  sits  at  the 
helm  of  the  universe,  controlling  all  its  vast  affairs  in 
infinite  wisdom  and  benevolence.  He  is  able  to  bring 
good  out  of  evil.  He  causeth  the  wrath  of  man  to  praise 
Him,  and  the  remainder  He  restrains.  He  extends  His 
care  and  providence  to  the  minutest  particulars  affecting 
our  interest.  "  Even  the  hairs  of  our  head  are  all  num- 
bered," and  "  Not  a  sparrow  falleth  to  the  ground  with- 
out His  notice."  Much  less  did  this  event  occur  without 
His  knowledge  and  permission.  The  human  agency  may 
have  been  exceedingly  culpable,  as  in  the  Saviour's  cruci- 
fixion, yet  the  Almighty  Ruler  of  the  world  has  ordained 
it  in  His  beneficence  and  love.  We  call  this  an  untimely 
death.  True,  it  was  death  in  the  morning  of  life,  yet  it 
is  timely  !  The  time  and  mode  are  of  Divine  selection. 
The  Great  Shepherd  of  Israel,  at  the  time  and  in  the  way 
He  sees  fit,  calls  His  sheep  away  from  earthly  storms  and 
tempests,  to  His  glorious  fold  on  high.  Why  should  we 
repine?  He  hath  done  all  things  well. 

Second— Although  we  would  neither  eulogize  the  dead, 
nor  anticipate  the  decisions  of  the  final  day,  yet  may 
we  not  cherish  and  express  the  humble  hope  that  our 
friend  died  a  Christian  ?  A  subject  of  experimental  and 
practical  Godliness?  If  so,  his  eulogy  is  written  in  the 
word  of  God.  "  Blessed  are  the  dead  that  die  in  the  Lord 
from  hence  forth.  Yea,  saith  the  Spirit,  for  they  rest 


346  APPENDIX. 

from  their  labor,  and  their  works  do  follow  them."  "Say 
ye  to  the  righteous,  it  shall  be  well  with  him." 

For  twenty-six  days  has  his  ransomed  spirit  been  an 
associate  of  angels,  and  the  "Spirits  of  the  just  made 
perfect,"  in  rendering  ascriptions  of  praise  to  our  incar- 
nate, yet  Crucified  Redeemer,  in  far  more  exalted  strains 
than  mortals  ever  knew;  while  the  unspeakable  glories 
of  the  heavenly  world  have  been  unfolding  to  his  enrap- 
tured vision.  How  the  laurels  of  earth  wither  to  the  eyes 
of  such  a  company!  Could  we  hold  intercourse  with  the 
eternal  world,  a  whisper  from  the  spirit  land  would 
say  to  us,  "Weep  not  for  me."  "The  Saviour  has  passed 
through  the  portals  before  me,  and  the  lamp  of  His  love 
was  my  guide  through  the  gloom." 

Third — Itshows  us  the  supreme  value  of  religion.  How 
plainly  are  we  taught  the  vanity  of  all  earthly  good! 
How  loudly  admonished  to  seek  a  heavenly  treasure! 
Nay,  were  the  sea  one  crysolite,  the  earth  one  golden 
ball,  and  diamonds  all  the  stars  of  night,  religion  is 
worth  them  all.  In  loudest  accents  this  Providence 
warns  us  to  be  in  constant  readiness  to  meet  death.  It 
is  a  direct  appeal  to  all  who  are  unfurnished  and  unpre- 
pared for  the  coming  world.  With  strong  emphasis,  it 
rebukes  the  spirit  of  procrastination,  by  which  some 
would  put  off  the  concerns  of  the  soul.  To  the  afflicted 
family  I  would  say,  tender  and  endearing  were  the  rela- 
tions you  sustained  to  the  deceased.  You  had  given  him 
a  large  place  in  the  affections  of  your  hearts.  He  was 
worth  all  that  you  bestowed  upon  him.  By  his  sudden 
and  appalling  death  you  are  filled  with  grief  and  mourn- 
ing. To  feel  the  ties  of  nature  sundered,  is  painful  in  the 
extreme.  Your  happy  circle  is  broken.  Your  ranks  are 
invaded,  and  some  of  you  feel  that  earth  is  stripped  of 
its  joy.  In  your  present  affliction,  receive  our  sympathies. 


APPENDIX.  247 

We  mingle  our  tears  with  yours.  The  great  Physician 
can  heal  your  broken  bones  and  bind  up  your  bleeding 
hearts.  To  Him  we  commend  you.  Let  faith  lift  her 
eye  to  the  resurrection  of  the  just,  where  you  may  be  en- 
abled to  say  to  the  Master,  "  Here  am  I,  and  the  children 
which  Thou  hast  given  me."  God  grant  you  resigna- 
tion to  His  holy  will. 


NOTE  B. 

HAMILTON  VOLUNTEER  AID  ASSOCIATION,  CORRESPONDENCE 

OF  "THE  REPUBLICAN." 
•/ 
The  ladies  of  Hamilton  met  on  Friday  evening,  May 

3ist,  at  the  house  of  Mr.  Adon  Smith,  to  form  themselves 
into  an  organization  for  the  purpose  of  providing  com- 
forts for  the  volunteers  sent  from  Hamilton  and  adjoin- 
ing towns  to  fight  for  the  Stars  and  Stripes.  The  notice 
not  having  been  generally  extended,  the  number  present 
was  not  as  large  as  desirable,  but  those  present  were 
earnest  to  be  at  work.  Mrs.  M.  S.  Platt  was  made  chair- 
man and  the  society  organized  under  the  name  of  the 
".Hamilton  Volunteer  Aid  Association."  Mrs.  Charles 
Mason  was  unanimously  elected  president ;  Mrs.  A.  M. 
Beebe,  vice-president  ;  Miss  Annette  Foote,  treasurer  ; 
and  Miss  D.  W.  Waters,  secretary.  It  was  resolved, 
after  a  discussion  of  the  needs  of  the  soldiers,  to  appro- 
priate the  funds  first  collected  to  the  procuring  of  have- 
locks  for  Company  D.  It  was  further  resolved,  that  the 
ladies  of  adjoining  towns  be  invited  to  join  the  associa- 
tion and  cooperate  with  the  ladies  of  Hamilton.  The  fol- 
lowing officers  were  then  chosen  :  As  soliciting  commit- 
tee, Mrs.  G.  W.  Eaton,  Mrs.  Lewis  Wickwire  ;  for  have- 
locks,  Mrs.  Bancroft,  Miss  Mary  Manchester,  Mrs.  Wells 


24b  APPENDIX. 

Russell ;  for  sponge  cases  and  towels,  Mrs.  John  J.  Foote, 
Mrs.  M.  Harmon  ;  for  sewing  kits,  Miss  M.  A.  Hastings, 
Miss  V.  M.  Case  ;  for  miscellaneous  articles,  Mrs.  Frank 
Bonney,  Miss  C.  Hyde.  Mrs.  Mason  then  read  some  pro- 
ceedings of  the  Chenango  Volunteer  Association,  and  an 
interesting  letter  from  Captain  Arrowsmith,  acknowledg- 
ing the  receipt  of  the  provisions  and  clothing  lately  sent 
the  volunteers.  Mr.  Miner  kindly  offered  his  parlors  as 
a  place  of  meeting,  and  the  association  adjourned  to  meet 
at  the  Wickwire  House  on  Thursday,  June  6th,  at  two 
o'clock,  P.  M.,  for  the  purpose  of  working  for  the  volun- 
teers, and  making  plans  for  future  operations. 


NOTE  C. 

WAR  DEPARTMENT,  WASHINGTON,  August  igth,  1862. 
Sir: 

You  are  hereby  informed  that  the  President  of  the 
United  States  has  appointed  you  Assistant  Adjutant-Gen- 
eral of  Volunteers,  with  the  rank  of  Captain,  in  the  serv- 
ice of  the  United  States,  to  rank  as  such  from  the  nine- 
teenth day  of  August,  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and 
sixty-two.  Should  the  Senate,  at  their  next  session,  ad- 
vise and  consent  thereto,  you  will  be  commissioned  ac- 
cordingly. 

Immediately  on  receipt  hereof,  please  to  communicate 
to  this  Department,  through  the  Adjutant-General's  office, 
your  acceptance  or  non-acceptance  of  said  appointment ; 
and,  with  your  letter  of  acceptance,  return  to  the  Adju- 
tant-General of  the  Army  the  oath  herewith  enclosed, 
properly  filled  up,  subscribed  and  attested,  reporting  at 
the  same  time  your  age,  residence  when  appointed,  and 
the  state  in  which  you  were  born. 


APPENDIX.  249 

Should  you  accept,  you  will  at  once  report,  in  person, 
for  orders,  to  Brigadier-General  Z.  B.  Tower,  U.  S.  Vol- 
unteers. 

EDWIN  M.  STANTON, 

Secretary  of  War. 
CAPTAIN  GEORGE  ARROWSMITH, 

Asst.  Adjt.  Genl.   Voh. 

NOTE  D. 

Extract  from  a  letter  of  Hon.  Charles  Mason,  L.  L.  D., 
of  the  Supreme  Court  of  New  York,  to  Thomas  Arrow- 
smfth,  Esq.,  dated  December  3oth,  1863. 

"  You  will  pardon  me  in  saying  that  the  death  of  your 
son  George  was  to  me  and  my  family  the  severest  casu- 
alty of  this  terrible  war.  He  was  possessed  of  a  noble  and 
generous  spirit,  brave  in  danger,  cool  and  composed  in 
the  midst  of  battle.  He  held  most  unbounded  control 
over  his  men.  This  was  so  whether  in  camp  or  field,  he 
always  possessed  their  confidence  and  esteem.  He  was 
a  remarkably  good  judge  of  human  nature  for  one  so 
young  as  he  was,  and  would  assuredly  have  acquired 
distinction  in  his  chosen  profession  had  he  not  gone  into 
the  army.  I  remonstrated  against  his  going  at  the  time 
he  first  enlisted,  but  he  said  he  was  already  pledged  to 
lead  the  company  then  in  process  of  formation  and  he 
could  not  back  down. 

"I  was  one  who  went  to  Albany  and  presented  to  Gov- 
ernor Morgan  an  application  for  hisappointment-as  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel. The  high  commendation  he  received 
from  officers  of  the  army  with  whom  he  was  associated  in 
battle,  as  to  his  ability  and  military  capacity  to  command 
either  a  regiment  or  brigade,  induced  the  Governor  to 
appoint  him  over  other  meritorious  applicants  for  the 


250  APPENDIX. 

position.  He  should  have  been  appointed  the  Colonel, 
and  so  Governor  Morgan  said,  but  George  was  in  the  field 
and  the  regiment  was  half  filled,  and  they  must  have  a 
Colonel  then." 

NOTE  E. 

This  conversation  was  told  to  the  writer  by  Surgeon 
H.  C.  Hendrick  of  McGrawville,  New  York. 

NOTE  F. 

These  incidents  were  related  to  the  writer  by  Captain 
G.  T.  VanHoesen  of  Cortland,  New  York,  who  served  in 
the  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-seventh  Regiment,  New 
York  State  Volunteers,  at  Gettysburg. 

NOTE  G. 

These  figures  are  from  official  reports,  and  include  a 
loss  sustained  by  the  remnant  of  the  regiment  in  a  fight 
on  Gulp's  Hill,  the  evening  of  the  second  day's  battle  at 
Gettysburg. 

NOTE  H. 

MEETING  OF  THE  BRIGADE  BOARD.       FROM   THE  "  MONMOUTH 
DEMOCRAT." 

The  Brigade  Board  of  the  Monmouth  and  Ocean  Bri- 
gade met  at  the  court-house  in  Freehold  on  Monday  last 
at  ten  o'clock,  A.  M.,  and  was  called  to  order  by  General 
Haight. 

Present,  Brigadier-General  Haight,  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Green,  Major  Corlies,  Major  Green,  Major  Yard,  Captain 
Forman,  Captain  Conover,  Captain  Hyer. 

Captain    Forman   desired    to   call  the  attention  of  the 


APPENDIX.  251 

Board  to  the  death  of  Lieutenant-Colonel  George  Arrow- 
smith,  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-seventh  New  York 
Volunteers,  a  native  of  this  county  and  a  son  of  Major 
Thomas  Arrowsmith,  who  was  killed  while  gallantly 
leading  his  regiment  on  the  outskirts  of  the  town  of  Get- 
tysburg during  the  recent  battle  at  that  place.  Captain 
Forman  pronounced  a  high  eulogy  on  the  character  of 
Lieutenant-Colonel  Arrowsmith.  He  said  there  are  few 
who  leave  a  nobler  record.  While  acting  as  Assistant 
Adjutant-General  at  Second  Bull  Run  his  name  was 
brought  permanently  before  the  country.  He  deemed  it 
proper  for  the  Board  to  take  some  action  in  the  matter 
expressive  of  their  sentiments  and  to  perpetuate  the 
memory  of  the  gallant  dead. 

Major  Corlies  moved  that  a  committee  of  three  be  ap- 
pointed to  draft  resolutions  expressive  of  the  sentiment  of 
the  board,  relative  to  the  death  of  Lieutenant-Colonel 
Arrowsmith,  which  was  adopted,  and  General  Haight, 
Major  Conover  and  Captain  Forman  were  appointed  said 
committee. 

The  following  resolutions  in  relation  to  the  death  of  the 
above-named  gallant  young  officer  were  reported  by  the 
committee  and  adopted  : 

WHEREAS,  The  Brigade  Board  of  the  Monmouth  and 
Ocean  Brigade,  New  Jersey  Militia,  have  learned  with 
deep  regret  that  Lieutenant-Colonel  George  Arrow- 
smith,  of  the  One  Hundred  and  Fifty-seventh  New 
York  Volunteers,  was  killed  while  gallantly  leading  his 
regiment  in  the  sanguinary  conflict  at  Gettysburg  on 
the  third  of  July,  in  his  efforts  to  expel  the  rebel 
armed  force  from  the  soil  of  Pennsylvania,  and  in  de- 
fense of  constitutional  liberty;  therefore, 
Resolved,  That  we  bow  with  contrite  hearts  to  this  dis- 


252  APPENDIX. 

position  of  an  overruling  Providence,  who  in  this  sad  af- 
fliction has  again  sent  a  solemn  admonition  to  warn  us 
that  in  the  midst  of  life  we  are  in  death; 

Resolved,  That  we  recognize  in  the  short  and  brilliant 
career  of  Colonel  Arrowsmith  his  patriotic  endeavors  to 
restore  to  its  wonted  peace  and  unity  our  distracted  and 
unhappy  country.  Second  Bull  Run  testifies  to  his  ac- 
tivity in  movement — his  vigilance  and  reliability  in  dan- 
ger ;  Chancellorsville  furnishes  the  indisputable  evidence 
of  the  living  purpose  that  directed  his  movements,  and 
the  unconquerable  spirit  that  enabled  him  to  undergo 
the  hardships  and  fatigues  of  battle;  while  Gettysburg 
proves  unflinching  courage  and  determined  bravery, 
from  the  active  part  he  took  in  the  drama  enacted  there. 

Resolved,  That  in  the  death  we  are  called  upon  to 
mourn,  the  military  arm  of  the  country  has  lost  the  serv- 
ices of  a  brave  and  accomplished  officer,  the  cause  of 
constitutional  government  a  bold  and  determined  defend- 
er, one  who  was  willing  to  shed  his  blood  in  its  defense; 

Resolved,  That  this  Board  deeply  sympathize  with  the 
aged  and  esteemed  parents  and  afflicted  family  of  the  de- 
ceased in  their  bereavement,  and  as  an  evidence  of  re- 
spect for  the  memory  of  the  noble  dead,  this  Board  will 
attend  his  funeral  in  the  Baptist  church  in  the  village  of 
Middletown  on  Sunday,  the  nineteenth  inst.,  at  three 
P.  M. 

Resolved,  That  copies  of  these  resolutions  be  sent  to  the 
family  of  the  deceased  and  published  in  the  county 
papers.  Signed, 

CHARLES  HAIGHT, 
FRANCIS  CORLIES, 
WILLIAM  B.  FORMAN, 

Committee. 


APPENDIX.  253 

NOTE  I. 

THE  LATE  LIEUTENANT-COLONEL  ARROWSMITH. 

The  class  of  "59  of  Madison   University  met  at   Ham- 
ilton, New  York,  the  day  and  date  hereafter  given,  and 
had  its  first  reunion  while  attending  the  commencement 
of  its  Alma  Mater,  at  which  time  the  following  preamble 
and  resolutions  were  unanimously  adopted  : 
WHEREAS,   our  beloved    classmate,  George   Arrowsmith, 
Lieutenant-Colonel  of   the    One    Hundred    and    Fifty- 
seventh,  New  York  State  Volunteers,  fell  at  Gettysburg 
July  3d,  1863,  while  nobly  leading  his  regiment  against 
the  enemy;  and 

WHEREAS,  the  occasion  of  our  first  class  reunion  affords 
us  the  first  opportunity  of  expressing'our  estimate  alike 
of  himself  and  of  his  early  and  noble  fate;  therefore 
Resolved.  That  as  a  class  we  feel  ourselves  to  have  been 
peculiarly    honored   by  the   voluntary  offering  upon  the 
nation's  altar  of  a  life  so  precious  and  valuable.     While 
we  miss  him  to-day,  not  as  we  do  others,  who,  though 
absent,  still  live  and  work  on  earth,  but  as  one  we  shall 
see  here  no  more,  we  yet  experience  a  mournful  pleasure 
in    transferring   his   name  from    the  list  of  living  class- 
mates to  that  immortal  scroll  on  which  are  inscribed  the 
names  of  those  who  have  laid  down  their  lives  for  Liber- 
ty, God  and  their  country; 

Resolved,  That  in  the  sacrifice  of  his  life,  our  class  has 
lost  one  who  united  with  distinguished  originality  of 
mind,  a  heart  generous  in  its  impulses,  tenacious  in  its 
friendships  and  courageous  in  its  instincts,  all  which 
invested  him  with  the  surest  promises  of  success  in  what- 
ever profession  of  life  he  might  have  chosen; 

Resolved,  That  while  we  embalm  his  memory  in  our 
hearts'  most  sacred  place,  deeply  conscious  of  our  irre- 


354  APPENDIX. 

parable  loss,  we  yet  regard  his  identification  with  the 
cause  of  the  nation  in  its  second  great  struggle  for  na- 
tionality, and  his  subsequent  death,  as  acts  performed  in 
our  behalf,  and  we  embrace  this  occasion  to  reassert  our 
devotion  to  our  country,  and  bind  ourselves  more  closely 
upon  the  altar  whereon  his  fresh  young  manhood  was  so 
heroically  sacrificed,  assured  that  he  died  not  in  vain,  and 
that  all  familiar  with  his  career  must  be  stimulated  to 
like  noble  endeavors; 

Resolved,  That  in  this  first  sundering  of  the  golden 
chain  of  our  class  relations  we  are  not  unmindful  of  the 
desolation  which  has  fallen  upon  his  endeared  home  and 
parents,  and  that  we  hereby  avail  ourselves  of  the  first 
opportunity  given  us  as  a  class  to  tender  the  bereaved 
home  circle  of  our  lamented  classmate  our  profound  and 
heartfelt  sympathy  in  this  painful  and  sad  bereavement; 

Resolved,  That  a  copy  of  these  resolutions  be  given  to 
the  parents  of  the  deceased,  and  that  the  same  be  pub- 
lished in  the  Hamilton  Republican,  the  Utica  Morning 
Herald,  and  the  New  Jersey  Standard. 

GEORGE  M.  STONE, 
ENOS  CLARKE, 
Committee  on  Resolutions. 

Hamilton,  August  ijth,  1863. 


UNIVERSITY  OF  CALIFORNIA  LIBRARY 


University  of  California 

SOUTHERN  REGIONAL  LIBRARY  FACILITY 

405  Hilgard  Avenue,  Los  Angeles,  CA  90024-1388 

Return  this  material  to  the  library 

from  which  It  was  borrowed. 


MAR  *  0 


DUE  2  WKS  FROM  L 


UCLA  URlJ/ILL 


REC'DYRLApRO* 


WABLE 


2000 


ATE  RhCtlVED 


TO